State of the Art Review: Colorectal Cancer Screening.

Associate Professor of Medicine, Alpert Medical School of Brown University, Brown University Center for Primary Care and Prevention at Memorial Hospital of Rhode Island, 111 Brewster Street, CPCP bldg- 2 Floor, Pawtucket, RI 02860,
American Journal of Lifestyle Medicine 05/2012; 6(3):196-203. DOI: 10.1177/1559827611413243
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Although colorectal cancer is the third leading cause of cancer-related deaths in the U.S., the burden of this disease could be dramatically reduced by increased utilization of screening. Evidence-based recommendations and guidelines from national societies recommend screening all average risk adults starting at age fifty. However, the myriad of screening options and slight differences in screening recommendations between guidelines may lead to confusion among patients and their primary care providers. This goal of this review is to briefly summarize the colorectal cancer screening guidelines issued by three major organizations, compare their recommendations, and address emerging issues in colorectal cancer screening.

Download full-text


Available from: Teresa Slomka, Apr 02, 2015
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background. Fecal immunochemical tests (FITs) have been used for colorectal cancer (CRC) screening in several countries. There is lack of information concerning diagnostic performances of this method in Brazil. Methods. Patients scheduled for elective colonoscopy provided one stool sample one week before colonoscopy. The accuracy of a qualitative FIT for detection of CRC and advanced adenomas was determined. Results. Overall 302 patients completed the study. Among them, 53.5% were high risk patients referred for screening or surveillance. Nine (3%) CRCs and 11 (3.6%) advanced adenomas were detected by colonoscopy. Sensitivity and specificity for CRC were, respectively, 88.9% and 87.6%. For advanced adenomas, sensitivity was 63.6% and specificity 87.6%. Conclusion. Our results showed good sensitivity and specificity of the FIT for detecting advanced neoplasias. This method may be a valuable tool for future screening programs in Brazil.
    Gastroenterology Research and Practice 11/2013; 2013:384561. DOI:10.1155/2013/384561 · 1.75 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Globally, colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common malignant neoplasm. However, highly sensitive, specific, noninvasive tests that allow CRC diagnosis at an early stage are still needed. As circulatory blood reflects the physiological status of an individual and/or the disease status for several disorders, efforts have been undertaken to identify candidate diagnostic CRC markers in plasma and serum. In this review, the challenges, bottlenecks and promising properties of mass spectrometry (MS)-based proteomics in blood are discussed. More specifically, important aspects in clinical design, sample retrieval, sample preparation, and MS analysis are presented. The recent developments in targeted MS approaches in plasma or serum are highlighted as well.
    Expert Review of Proteomics 04/2014; 11(4). DOI:10.1586/14789450.2014.905743 · 3.54 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Early screening for colorectal cancer (CRC) holds the key to combat and control the increasing global burden of CRC morbidity and mortality. However, the current available screening modalities are severely inadequate because of their high cost and cumbersome preparatory procedures that ultimately lead to a low participation rate. People simply do not like to have colonoscopies. It would be ideal, therefore, to develop an alternative modality based on blood biomarkers as the first line screening test. This will allow for the differentiation of the general population from high risk individuals. Colonoscopy would then become the secondary test, to further screen the high risk segment of the population. This will encourage participation and therefore help to reach the goal of early detection and thereby reduce the anticipated increasing global CRC incidence rate. A blood-based screening test is an appealing alternative as it is non-invasive and poses minimal risk to patients. It is easy to perform, can be repeated at shorter intervals, and therefore would likely lead to a much higher participation rate. This review surveys various blood-based test strategies currently under investigation, discusses the potency of what is available, and assesses how new technology may contribute to future test design.
    04/2014; 6(4):83-97. DOI:10.4251/wjgo.v6.i4.83
Show more