Many previous studies have revealed that individuals with depression have higher thought of suicide, although not always exhibiting intent. We investigated the associated factors with respect to intent for suicide in the future. A total of 1584 adults were selected through a nationwide multistage probability sampling, randomly one person per household, and through face-to-face interviews (response rate was 63.4%) using the suicidality module of the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview and the Patient Health Questionnaire-9. The group with depression (n = 152) revealed a significantly higher level of future suicide intent (t = 4.65, p <0.0001) and permissive attitude (t = 4.32, p <0.0001) than did the group without depression, which regarded suicide as free from life suffering, a personal right, and a solution to a difficult situation. After adjusting for all variables in the multiple logistic regression models, permissive attitude (adjusted odds ratio, 3.69; 95% confidence interval, 1.97-6.89) was the only factor significantly associated with future suicide intent, whereas age; sex; education years; monthly income; financial, job, and family stress; physical illness; lifetime suicide attempt; and depression showed no statistical significance. The group with depression showed significantly higher levels of future suicide intent than did the group without depression in those who had a higher permissive attitude (t = 4.18, p <0.0001) but not in those who had lower permissive attitudes (t = 1.98, p = 0.067). Permissive attitude toward suicide was associated with intent for suicide in the future in individuals with depression. Permissive attitude could be evaluated and corrected to prevent suicide.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study aimed at investigating the effects of individualistic-collectivistic value orientations on non-fatal suicidal behavior and attitudes in Turkish adolescents and young adults. A questionnaire containing measures of individualism, collectivism (INDCOL), non-fatal suicidal behaviors and suicidal attitudes was used to collect the data. The results showed that both suicidal ideation and attempts were significantly more frequent in participants classified as individualist than those who were classified as collectivist on the basis of INDCOL scale scores. Participants with individualistic tendencies displayed more permissive attitudes toward suicide than those with collectivistic tendencies but collectivists believed to a greater extent than the individualists that people should communicate suicidal problems to others. Participants with collectivistic tendencies showed more accepting and helping reactions to an imagined suicidal friend than those with individualistic tendencies. Suicidal ideation and attempts were more common among adolescents than young adults. The findings suggest that individualistic and collectivistic value orientations and developmental status specific stressors play a role in the distribution of nonfatal suicidal behavior and the nature of suicidal attitudes.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Suicide is a tragedy that has massive impact on society. In order to prevent suicide, active government intervention is necessary. The suicide rate in Seoul is rapidly increasing and is more than five times higher than that in the state of Massachusetts (MA) during the last decade, especially in the elderly. The suicide prevention program of MA is one of the most effective suicide prevention programs in the United States. The program views suicide as a preventable public health problem, and emphasizes treatment of depression and de-stigmatization of mental health illnesses to prevent suicide. Also, through active collaboration with mental health professionals, they try to identify at-risk populations and help them to get medical interventions. The program also actively collaborates with the regional coalition program and the Samaritans in taking care of the elderly, and supports the elderly in feeling worthwhile after retirement by helping them to work for communities as volunteers. For its part, the Seoul suicide prevention program puts more emphasis on "life respect culture" and "emotional support to high risk individuals by regular visiting". The annual budget of the Seoul suicide prevention program is one-quarter and that for mental health is about one-twentieth that of MA. Considering the high suicide rate and lower mental health service usage in Seoul, it is crucial to raise awareness of depression and decrease the stigma on mental illnesses. Furthermore, educational efforts with long-term investment in research on suicide are necessary.
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