Panel 5: Microbiology and immunology panel

University at Buffalo, the State University of New York, Buffalo, New York, USA.
Otolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery (Impact Factor: 2.02). 04/2013; 148(4 Suppl):E64-89. DOI: 10.1177/0194599812459636
Source: PubMed


Objective The objective is to perform a comprehensive review of the literature from January 2007 through June 2011 on the virology, bacteriology, and immunology related to otitis media. Data Sources PubMed database of the National Library of Medicine. Review Methods Three subpanels with co-chairs comprising experts in the virology, bacteriology, and immunology of otitis media were formed. Each of the panels reviewed the literature in their respective fields and wrote draft reviews. The reviews were shared with all panel members, and a second draft was created. The entire panel met at the 10th International Symposium on Recent Advances in Otitis Media in June 2011 and discussed the review and refined the content further. A final draft was created, circulated, and approved by the panel. Conclusion Excellent progress has been made in the past 4 years in advancing an understanding of the microbiology and immunology of otitis media. Advances include laboratory-based basic studies, cell-based assays, work in animal models, and clinical studies. Implications for Practice The advances of the past 4 years formed the basis of a series of short-term and long-term research goals in an effort to guide the field. Accomplishing these goals will provide opportunities for the development of novel interventions, including new ways to better treat and prevent otitis media.

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    • "During this inflammatory period, the middle ear ossicles are less mobile and may be subject to resorption,32 which could even lead to permanent conductive hearing loss. Studies have described patients with smaller mastoid cavities as having greater risk of developing chronic middle ear disease;27 however, whether this effect is causative is controversial. Patients with chronic infection may also develop sensorineural hearing loss secondary to ototoxicity. "
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    ABSTRACT: Acute otitis media and otitis media with effusion are common childhood disorders, a source of significant morbidity, and a leading cause of antibiotic prescription in primary health care. Although effective treatments are available, some shortcomings remain, and thus better treatments would be welcome. Recent discoveries within the field of otitis media research relating to its etiology and pathogenesis have led to further investigation aimed at developing novel treatments. This article provides a review of the latest evidence relating to the understanding of acute otitis media and otitis media with effusion, current treatment strategies, their limitations, new areas of research, and novel strategies for treatment.
    Infection and Drug Resistance 01/2014; 7:15-24. DOI:10.2147/IDR.S39637
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    ABSTRACT: Introduction: Acute otitis media (AOM) is the most common childhood bacterial infection and also the leading cause of conductive hearing loss in children. Currently, there is an urgent need for developing novel therapeutic agents for treating AOM. Areas covered: Structured search of current literature. PubMed was searched for published literature in areas of pharmacotherapeutics, preventive therapies and complementary treatments for OM. The intent of this review is to provide a comprehensive evaluation of therapeutics for AOM, including preventive modalities and complementary medicine. Expert opinion: the management of AOM in young children is still evolving and depends on patterns of bacterial colonization and antimicrobial resistance in the community. The introduction of vaccinations against potential respiratory tract pathogens has altered the frequency of recovery of pathogens causing ear infections in children. Even though not all patients require antimicrobial therapy to overcome their infection, these agents improve symptoms faster and lead to fewer treatment failures. Further studies are warranted to evaluate which patients would best benefit from antimicrobial therapy.
    Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy 05/2014; 15(8). DOI:10.1517/14656566.2014.903920 · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Mucosal immune responses within the middle ear and eustachian tube generally provide an effective and efficient response to the presence of microbial pathogens, with approximately 80% of clinically recognizable middle ear infections resolved within 7. days. Particularly for young children aged less than 3. years of age, the proximity and direct connection of the middle ear, via the eustachian tube, to the nasopharynx provide increased risk of commensal bacteria and upper respiratory tract viruses infecting the middle ear. Mucosal immunological defense in the middle ear and eustachian tube utilizes a number of mechanisms, including physicochemical barriers of mucus and the mucosal epithelial cells and innate immune responses such as inflammation, cellular infiltration, effusion, and antimicrobial protein secretions, in addition to adaptive host immune responses. Recent advances in otopathogen recognition via microbial pattern recognition receptors and elucidation of complex signaling cascades have improved understanding of the coordination and regulation of the middle ear mucosal response. These advances support vaccine development aiming to reduce the risk of otitis media in children.