L74V increases the reverse transcriptase content of HIV-1 virions with non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase drug-resistant mutations L100I+K103N and K101E+G190S, which results in increased fitness.
ABSTRACT The fitness of non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) drug resistant reverse transcriptase (RT) mutants of HIV-1 correlates with the amount of RT in the virions and the RNase H activity of the RT. We wanted to understand the mechanism by which secondary NNRTI resistance mutations, L100I and K101E, and the nucleoside resistance mutation, L74V, alter the fitness of K103N and G190S viruses. We measured the amount of RT in virions and the polymerization and RNase H activities of mutant RTs compared to wild type, K103N and G190S. We found that L100I, K101E and L74V did not change the polymerization or RNase H activities of K103N or G190S RTs. However, L100I and K101E reduced the amount of RT in the virions and subsequent addition of L74V restored RT levels back to those of G190S or K103N alone. We conclude that fitness changes caused by L100I, K101E and L74V derive from their effects on RT content.
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ABSTRACT: The V3 hypervariable region of the HIV-1 envelope protein is a major determinant of viral tropism for macrophages. However, the replication of macrophage-tropic HIV-1 strains varies considerably in macrophages, and this variability has been linked to the V1 and V2 envelope regions. In the present study, recombinant HIV clones were generated by inserting V1 and V2 sequences from the Ba-L HIV isolate, which has a high macrophage replication level, into the genomic background of a macrophage-tropic clone with a low macrophage replication level. Infection of macrophages with varying multiplicities of infection and direct detection of the number of infected macrophages per culture showed that the Ba-L V1 and V2 envelope sequences enhanced the ability of virus to spread in the cultures. In contrast, macrophage-tropic clones with low replication efficiency infected macrophages initially but showed no evidence of spread to additional cells during the culture period. This effect on virus spread appeared to be macrophage-specific as it was not observed in cultures of T lymphocytes. Comparison of recombinant clones containing V1, V2, and V3 envelope sequences from high-efficiency Ba-L and JR-FL strains indicated that markedly different V1 and V2 sequences could impart the same rapidly spreading phenotype in macrophages.Virology 11/1995; 213(1):70-9. DOI:10.1006/viro.1995.1547 · 3.28 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: We have examined components of the preintegration complex of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and have analyzed features which govern the association of these components. HIV-1 nucleoprotein complexes, isolated from nuclear and cytoplasmic extracts of CD4+ cells after acute virus infection, contained viral RNA and DNA in association with viral matrix (MA), integrase (IN), and reverse transcriptase (RT) antigens but not capsid (CA) antigens and possessed integration activity in vitro. Association of IN but not RT or MA antigens with viral DNA was detergent-stable. Analysis of viral DNA synthesis and nuclear import of viral nucleoprotein complexes in the presence of a reversible RT inhibitor demonstrated that reverse transcription of viral RNA could be completed entirely in the host cell nucleus. Our studies demonstrate structural and functional features of the nucleoprotein (preintegration) complex of HIV-1 which are pertinent to the understanding of early events in the lentiviral life cycle.Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 08/1993; 90(13):6125-9. DOI:10.1073/pnas.90.13.6125 · 9.81 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Patterns and pathways of HIV type-1 (HIV-1) antiretroviral (ARV) drug resistance-associated mutations in clinical isolates are conditioned by ARV history and factors such as viral subtype and fitness. Our aim was to analyse the frequency and association of ARV drug resistance mutations in a group of long-term vertically infected patients from Argentina. Plasma samples from 71 patients (38 children and 33 adolescents) were collected for genotypic HIV-1 ARV resistance testing during the period between February 2006 and October 2008. Statistically significant pairwise associations between ARV resistance mutations in pol, as well as associations between mutations and drug exposure, were identified using Fisher's exact tests with Bonferroni and false discovery rate corrections. Phylogenetic analyses were performed for subtype assignment. In protease (PR), resistance-associated mutations M46I/L, I54M/L/V/A/S and V82A/F/T/S/M/I were associated with each other and with minor mutations at codons 10, 24 and 71. Mutations V82A/F/T/S/M/I were primarily selected by the administration of ritonavir (RTV) in an historical ARV regimen. In reverse transcriptase, thymidine analogue mutation (TAM)1 profile was more common than TAM2. The non-nucleoside K103N+L100I mutations were observed at high frequency (15.5%) and were significantly associated with the nucleoside mutation L74V in BF recombinants. Associations of mutations at PR sites reflect the frequent use of RTV at an early time in this group of patients and convergent resistance mechanisms driven by the high exposure to protease inhibitors, as well as local HIV-1 diversity. The results provide clinical evidence of a molecular interaction between K103N+L100I and L74V mutations at the reverse transcriptase gene in vivo, limiting the future use of second-generation non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors such as etravirine.Antiviral therapy 01/2010; 15(4):641-50. DOI:10.3851/IMP1571 · 3.14 Impact Factor