Dominant gain-of-function STAT1 mutations in FOXP3 wild-type immune dysregulation-polyendocrinopathy-enteropathy-X-linked-like syndrome
ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Mutations in signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) 1 cause a broad spectrum of disease, ranging from severe viral and bacterial infections (amorphic alleles) to mild disseminated mycobacterial disease (hypomorphic alleles) to chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis (CMC; hypermorphic alleles). The hypermorphic mutations are also associated with arterial aneurysms, autoimmunity, and squamous cell cancers. OBJECTIVE: We sought to investigate the role of STAT1 gain-of-function mutations in phenotypes other than CMC. METHODS: We initially screened patients with CMC and autoimmunity for STAT1 mutations. We functionally characterized mutations in vitro and studied immune profiles and regulatory T (Treg) cells. After our initial case identifications, we explored 2 large cohorts of patients with wild-type forkhead box protein 3 and an immune dysregulation-polyendocrinopathy-enteropathy-X-linked (IPEX)-like phenotype for STAT1 mutations. RESULTS: We identified 5 children with polyendocrinopathy, enteropathy, and dermatitis reminiscent of IPEX syndrome; all but 1 had a variety of mucosal and disseminated fungal infections. All patients lacked forkhead box protein 3 mutations but had uniallelic STAT1 mutations (c.629 G>T, p.R210I; c.1073 T>G, p.L358W, c.796G>A; p.V266I; c.1154C>T, T385M [2 patients]). STAT1 phosphorylation in response to IFN-γ, IL-6, and IL-21 was increased and prolonged. CD4(+) IL-17-producing T-cell numbers were diminished. All patients had normal Treg cell percentages in the CD4(+) T-cell compartment, and their function was intact in the 2 patients tested. Patients with cells available for study had normal levels of IL-2-induced STAT5 phosphorylation. CONCLUSIONS: Gain-of-function mutations in STAT1 can cause an IPEX-like phenotype with normal frequency and function of Treg cells.
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ABSTRACT: Chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis (CMC) is characterized by recurrent or persistent infections of the skin, nail, oral, and genital mucosae with Candida species, mainly C. albicans. Autosomal-recessive (AR) IL-17RA and ACT1 deficiencies and autosomal-dominant IL-17F deficiency, each reported in a single kindred, underlie CMC in otherwise healthy patients. We report three patients from unrelated kindreds, aged 8, 12, and 37 yr with isolated CMC, who display AR IL-17RC deficiency. The patients are homozygous for different nonsense alleles that prevent the expression of IL-17RC on the cell surface. The defect is complete, abolishing cellular responses to IL-17A and IL-17F homo- and heterodimers. However, in contrast to what is observed for the IL-17RA- and ACT1-deficient patients tested, the response to IL-17E (IL-25) is maintained in these IL-17RC-deficient patients. These experiments of nature indicate that human IL-17RC is essential for mucocutaneous immunity to C. albicans but is otherwise largely redundant. © 2015 Ling et al.Journal of Experimental Medicine 04/2015; 212(5). DOI:10.1084/jem.20141065 · 13.91 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: All the human primary immunodeficiencies (PIDs) recognized as such in the 1950s were Mendelian traits and, whether autosomal or X-linked, displayed recessive inheritance. The first autosomal dominant (AD) PID, hereditary angioedema, was recognized in 1963. However, since the first identification of autosomal recessive (AR), X-linked recessive (XR) and AD PID-causing genes in 1985 (ADA; severe combined immunodeficiency), 1986 (CYBB, chronic granulomatous disease) and 1989 (SERPING1; hereditary angioedema), respectively, the number of genetically defined AD PIDs has increased more rapidly than that of any other type of PID. AD PIDs now account for 61 of the 260 known conditions (23%). All known AR PIDs are caused by alleles with some loss-of-function (LOF). A single XR PID is caused by gain-of-function (GOF) mutations (WASP-related neutropenia, 2001). In contrast, only 44 of 61 AD defects are caused by LOF alleles, which exert dominance by haploinsufficiency or negative dominance. Since 2003, up to 17 AD disorders of the third kind, due to GOF alleles, have been described. Remarkably, six of the 17 genes concerned also harbor monoallelic (STAT3), biallelic (C3, CFB, CARD11, PIK3R1) or both monoallelic and biallelic (STAT1) LOF alleles in patients with other clinical phenotypes. Most heterozygous GOF alleles result in auto-inflammation, auto-immunity, or both, with a wide range of immunological and clinical forms. Some also underlie infections and, fewer, allergies, by impairing or enhancing immunity to non-self. Malignancies are also rare. The enormous diversity of immunological and clinical phenotypes is thought provoking and mirrors the diversity and pleiotropy of the underlying genotypes. These experiments of nature provide a unique insight into the quantitative regulation of human immunity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.Current Opinion in Immunology 01/2015; 32C:90-105. DOI:10.1016/j.coi.2015.01.005 · 7.87 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Germline, loss-of-function mutations in the transcription factor STAT3 cause immunodeficiency, while somatic, gain-of-function mutations in STAT3 are associated with large granular lymphocytic leukemic, myelodysplastic syndrome, and aplastic anemia. Recently, germline mutations in STAT3 have also been associated with autoimmune disease. Here we report thirteen individuals from ten families with lymphoproliferation and early-onset, solid organ autoimmunity associated with nine different germline, heterozygous mutations in STAT3. Patients exhibited a variety of clinical features, with most having lymphadenopathy, autoimmune cytopenias, multi-organ autoimmunity (lung, gastrointestinal, hepatic, and/or endocrine dysfunction), infections and short stature. Functional analyses demonstrate that these mutations confer a gain-of-function in STAT3 leading to secondary defects in STAT5 and STAT1 phosphorylation and the regulatory T cell compartment. Treatment targeting a cytokine pathway that signals through STAT3 lead to clinical improvement in one patient, suggesting a potential therapeutic option for such patients. These results suggest that there is a broad range of autoimmunity caused by germline STAT3 gain-of-function mutations, and that hematologic autoimmunity is a major component of this newly-described disorder. Some patients for this study were enrolled in a trial registered at ClinicalTrials.gov #NCT00001350.Blood 10/2014; DOI:10.1182/blood-2014-09-602763 · 9.78 Impact Factor