YY1 controls Igκ repertoire and B-cell development, and localizes with condensin on the Igκ locus.

Department of Animal Biology, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, USA.
The EMBO Journal (Impact Factor: 10.75). 03/2013; DOI: 10.1038/emboj.2013.66
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Conditional knock-out (KO) of Polycomb Group (PcG) protein YY1 results in pro-B cell arrest and reduced immunoglobulin locus contraction needed for distal variable gene rearrangement. The mechanisms that control these crucial functions are unknown. We deleted the 25 amino-acid YY1 REPO domain necessary for YY1 PcG function, and used this mutant (YY1ΔREPO), to transduce bone marrow from YY1 conditional KO mice. While wild-type YY1 rescued B-cell development, YY1ΔREPO failed to rescue the B-cell lineage yielding reduced numbers of B lineage cells. Although the IgH rearrangement pattern was normal, there was a selective impact at the Igκ locus that showed a dramatic skewing of the expressed Igκ repertoire. We found that the REPO domain interacts with proteins from the condensin and cohesin complexes, and that YY1, EZH2 and condensin proteins co-localize at numerous sites across the Ig kappa locus. Knock-down of a condensin subunit protein or YY1 reduced rearrangement of Igκ Vκ genes suggesting a direct role for YY1-condensin complexes in Igκ locus structure and rearrangement.

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The intestinal stem cell fuels the highest rate of tissue turnover in the body and has been implicated in intestinal disease and cancer; understanding the regulatory mechanisms controlling intestinal stem cell physiology is of great importance. Here, we provide evidence that the transcription factor YY1 is essential for intestinal stem cell renewal. We observe that YY1 loss skews normal homeostatic cell turnover, with an increase in proliferating crypt cells and a decrease in their differentiated villous progeny. Increased crypt cell numbers come at the expense of Lgr5(+) stem cells. On YY1 deletion, Lgr5(+) cells accelerate their commitment to the differentiated population, exhibit increased levels of apoptosis, and fail to maintain stem cell renewal. Loss of Yy1 in the intestine is ultimately fatal. Mechanistically, YY1 seems to play a role in stem cell energy metabolism, with mitochondrial complex I genes bound directly by YY1 and their transcript levels decreasing on YY1 loss. These unappreciated YY1 functions broaden our understanding of metabolic regulation in intestinal stem cell homeostasis.
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 05/2014; 111(21). DOI:10.1073/pnas.1400128111 · 9.81 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Our previous studies have shown that DNase I hypersensitive sites 1 and 2 (HS1-2) and HS3-6 within the mouse Vκ-Jκ intervening region are essential for controlling locus contraction and creating a diverse Ab repertoire. In this article, we demonstrate that a 6.3-kb deletion encompassing HS1-6 altogether not only leads to the predictable sums of these phenotypes, but also results in a novel hyperelevation of transcription of proximal Vκ genes, in both pre-B and splenic B cells. These findings reveal previously unrecognized additional functions for cis-elements within the Vκ-Jκ intervening region, namely, prevention of the production of massive levels of noncoding RNA species by silencing transcription of germline proximal Vκ genes in both developing and mature B cells.
    The Journal of Immunology 09/2014; 193(7). DOI:10.4049/jimmunol.1401574 · 5.36 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The IgH intronic enhancer region Eμ is a combination of both a 220-bp core enhancer element and two 310-350-bp flanking scaffold/matrix attachment regions named MARsEμ. In the mouse, deletion of the core-enhancer Eμ element mainly affects VDJ recombination with minor effects on class switch recombination. We carried out endogenous deletion of the full-length Eμ region (core plus MARsEμ) in the mouse genome to study VH gene repertoire and IgH expression in developing B-lineage cells. Despite a severe defect in VDJ recombination with partial blockade at the pro-B cell stage, Eμ deletion (core or full length) did not affect VH gene usage. Deletion of this regulatory region induced both a decrease of pre-B cell and newly formed B cell compartments and a strong orientation toward the marginal zone B cell subset. Because Igμ H chain expression was decreased in Eμ-deficient pre-B cells, we propose that modification of B cell homeostasis in deficient animals was caused by "weak" pre-B cell and BCR expression. Besides imbalances in B cell compartments, Ag-specific Ab responses were not impaired in animals carrying the Eμ deletion. In addition to its role in VDJ recombination, our study points out that the full-length Eμ region does not influence VH segment usage but ensures efficient Igμ-chain expression required for strong signaling through pre-B cells and newly formed BCRs and thus participates in B cell inflow and fate.
    The Journal of Immunology 06/2014; 193(4). DOI:10.4049/jimmunol.1302868 · 5.36 Impact Factor


Available from
Jun 1, 2014