A Population-based Case-Control Study of Stillbirth: The Relationship of Significant Life Events to the Racial Disparity for African Americans.
ABSTRACT Stillbirths (fetal deaths occurring at ≥20 weeks' gestation) are approximately equal in number to infant deaths in the United States and are twice as likely among non-Hispanic black births as among non-Hispanic white births. The causes of racial disparity in stillbirth remain poorly understood. A population-based case-control study conducted by the Stillbirth Collaborative Research Network in 5 US catchment areas from March 2006 to September 2008 identified characteristics associated with racial/ethnic disparity and interpersonal and environmental stressors, including a list of 13 significant life events (SLEs). The adjusted odds ratio for stillbirth among women reporting all 4 SLE factors (financial, emotional, traumatic, and partner-related) was 2.22 (95% confidence interval: 1.43, 3.46). This association was robust after additional control for the correlated variables of family income, marital status, and health insurance type. There was no interaction between race/ethnicity and other variables. Effective ameliorative interventions could have a substantial public health impact, since there is at least a 50% increased risk of stillbirth for the approximately 21% of all women and 32% of non-Hispanic black women who experience 3 or more SLE factors during the year prior to delivery.
- Paediatric and Perinatal Epidemiology 07/2014; 28(4):277-9. · 2.81 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Background Data on cultural groups at risk of stillbirth in high-income countries are scarce. We sought to determine disparities in stillbirth by gestational age for Haitian vs. non-Haitian Canadians.Methods We used data on 10 287 stillbirths and 2 482 364 livebirths from 1981–2010 in the province of Quebec, Canada. Stillbirth rates for Haitians were compared with non-Haitians using fetuses at risk denominators, and Cox proportional hazards regression models with gestational age as the time scale.ResultsStillbirth rates were much higher for Haitians than non-Haitians during the study period (7.2 vs. 3.9 per 1000 total births). Disparities between Haitians and non-Haitians were largest at 32–36 weeks of gestation [hazard ratio 2.22, 95% confidence interval 1.61, 3.07].Conclusions Stillbirth rates in Haitian Canadians giving birth in Quebec are exceptionally high. Disparities were greatest during the late preterm period.Paediatric and Perinatal Epidemiology 05/2014; · 2.16 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Research provides strong evidence for improvements in depressive symptoms as a result of physical activity participation in many populations including pregnant and post-partum women. Little is known about how women who have experienced stillbirth (defined as fetal death at 20 or more weeks of gestation) feel about physical activity or use physical activity following this experience. The purpose of this study was to qualitatively explore women's beliefs about physical activity following a stillbirth. This was an exploratory qualitative research study. Participants were English-speaking women between the ages of 19 and 44 years who experienced a stillbirth in the past year from their recruitment date. Interviews were conducted over the phone or in-person based on participants' preferences and location of residence and approximately 30-45 minutes in length. Twenty-four women participated in the study (M age = 33 +/- 3.68 years; M time since stillbirth = 6.33 +/- 3.06 months). Women's beliefs about physical activity after stillbirth were coded into the following major themes: barriers to physical activity (emotional symptoms and lack of motivation, tired, lack of time, guilt, letting go of a pregnant body, and seeing other babies), benefits to physical activity (feeling better emotionally/mentally, helping women to cope or be therapeutic), importance of physical activity (working through grief, time for self), motivators for physical activity (body shape/weight, health, more children, be a role model, already an exerciser). Health care providers and their role in physical activity participation was also a major theme. This is the first study to qualitatively explore beliefs about physical activity in women after a stillbirth. Women who have experienced stillbirth have unique beliefs about physical activity related to their experience with stillbirth. Findings from this study may help to improve the health and quality of life for women who have experienced stillbirth by utilizing physical activity as a strategy for improving depressive symptoms associated with experiencing a stillbirth. Future research in this area is highly warranted.BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 01/2014; 14(1):26. · 2.15 Impact Factor