Dietary recommendations during and after cancer treatment: consistently inconsistent?
ABSTRACT Recent data reveals that dietary factors may influence outcomes in patients undergoing cancer treatment. However, patient-centered information on dietary recommendations is limited. In this study, we assessed dietary recommendations for cancer patients during treatment and survivorship by evaluating the websites of all National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) member institutions. NCCN members were identified on www.nccn.org , and individual websites were reviewed for nutritional content. Recommendations were categorized by meal frequency, diet type, macronutrient content, and other specific recommendations. Twenty-one NCCN member institutions were identified. Only 4 sites (19%) provided nutritional guidelines. Half promoted a low-fat, high-carbohydrate diet recommending 5:1 and 7:1 ratios of carbohydrate to fat food types, and half promoted weight maintenance during treatment, endorsing a 1:1 ratio of carbohydrate to fat. One third of all NCCN sites (n = 7) had links to 9 external websites. Four external sites provided nutrition guidelines: half favored a low-fat, high-carbohydrate diet, and half favored high-caloric intake to maintain weight. Consistent online dietary recommendations are lacking for patients during and after cancer treatment. Given the lack of consensus on dietary recommendations, future research is warranted to develop evidenced-based guidelines that can be used by oncologists and patients alike.
- Canadian Medical Association Journal 07/2014; 186(14). DOI:10.1503/cmaj.131402 · 5.96 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Head and neck cancers (HNCs) are aggressive tumors that typically demonstrate a high glycolytic rate, which results in resistance to cytotoxic therapy and poor prognosis. Due to their location these tumors specifically impair food intake and quality of life, so that prevention of weight loss through nutrition support becomes an important treatment goal. Dietary restriction of carbohydrates (CHOs) and their replacement with fat, mostly in form of a ketogenic diet (KD), have been suggested to accommodate for both the altered tumor cell metabolism and cancer-associated weight loss. In this review, I present three specific rationales for CHO restriction and nutritional ketosis as supportive treatment options for the HNC patient. These are (1) targeting the origin and specific aspects of tumor glycolysis; (2) protecting normal tissue from but sensitizing tumor tissue to radiation- and chemotherapy induced cell kill; (3) supporting body and muscle mass maintenance. While most of these benefits of CHO restriction apply to cancer in general, specific aspects of implementation are discussed in relation to HNC patients. While CHO restriction seems feasible in HNC patients the available evidence indicates that its role may extend beyond fighting malnutrition to fighting HNC itself.Cancer Biology and Medicine 09/2014; 11(3):145-161. DOI:10.7497/j.issn.2095-3941.2014.03.001
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ABSTRACT: Background and objective: The consumption of oral antineoplastics -and more particularly of tyrosine-kinase inhibitors (TKI)- has increased in recent years. These therapies show a better tolerance but still, the nutritional alterations related to their daily and chronic clinical use are under investigation. This study assesses the effects of TKI on the intake, nutritional status and micronutrients as well as the patients quality of life. Methods: A prospective longitudinal study was conducted including adult patients having started some TKI treatment from July 2012 to June 2013, and a 6 month follow-up period was established. Demographic pharmacotherapeutic, nutritional and biochemical variables were collected and also a EORTC-QLQ30 questionnaire at baseline, first, third and sixth month of treatment. Results: 31 patients were included in the study. The percentage of weight loss at treatment baseline was statistically matched to the results on the patient-generated Global Subjective Assessment. Appetite decreased after one month of treatment, and so did the calorie consumption; 62.1% of the patients lost weight, 55.5% on the third month and 70.6% on the sixth month. 6-17% of the patients suffered from malnutrition to some degree during the follow-up period and a decrease of calcium, phosphate and magnesium plasma levels was detected. The emotional scale was the one with a lowest score in EORTC QLQ-30, and fatigue and lack of appetite were the most common symptoms at treatment baseline, progressively increasing those of nausea, vomits and diarrhea. Discussion: Patients treated with TKI did not show a relevant malnutrition. Considering the results, it is important to take into account weight loss at treatment baseline; it is also important to control calcium and phosphate levels during treatment, to advise and counsel the patient on the GI effects (nausea, vomits and diarrhea) and emotionally reinforce the patient.Nutricion hospitalaria: organo oficial de la Sociedad Espanola de Nutricion Parenteral y Enteral 11/2014; 30(5):1092-100. DOI:10.3305/nh.2014.30.5.7761 · 1.04 Impact Factor