Annual All-Cause Healthcare Costs Among Influenza Patients With and Without Influenza-Related Complications : Analysis of a United States Managed Care Database.
ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Several studies have reported that patients with influenza have a high risk of developing complications such as secondary infections, exacerbation of cardiovascular conditions and asthma. However, limited data exists on the healthcare cost burden for influenza patients with and without influenza-related complications. OBJECTIVE: We compared healthcare utilization and costs among influenza patients with related complications versus patients without complications. METHODS: In this retrospective database analysis (LifeLink database: 1998-2009) of a US managed care database, we selected patients diagnosed with influenza during influenza seasons and categorized them as complicated or uncomplicated based on the presence or absence of a diagnosis for a related complication in the year following their influenza diagnosis. Multivariable regression analyses were conducted to compare all-cause utilization and costs (adjusted to 2009 US dollars) between the two groups. RESULTS: We identified 54,469 patients of which ~65 % had evidence for at least one complication. Patients with complicated influenza had a 1.5-fold higher rate of inpatient utilization compared with uncomplicated cases (p < 0.001). Significantly higher covariate-adjusted predicted mean annual costs were also observed among complicated influenza patients across all care (p-values <0.001 for all comparisons). CONCLUSION: Healthcare costs were twice as high among influenza patients with complications versus those without, with inpatient and outpatient services being the primary cost drivers. Now with the universal recommendation for seasonal influenza vaccination for all individuals ≥6 months of age, improvement in coverage rates may help reduce the healthcare utilization and costs associated with influenza and associated complications.
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ABSTRACT: Influenza imposes an annual burden on individuals, society, and healthcare systems. This burden is increased by the development of complications that are often more severe than the primary infection. Here, we examine the main complications associated with influenza and review the effectiveness of antiviral therapy in reducing the incidence of such events. The content of this review is taken from the study of the authors' extensive collection of reference materials, examination of the bibliographical content of relevant papers, and the results of Medline searches. The most commonly encountered complications in adults are sinusitis, pharyngitis, bronchitis, and, particularly in the elderly, bacterial pneumonia. Such complications may exacerbate pulmonary complaints. Children are particularly prone to post-influenza croup and otitis media. Complications involving the central nervous system, heart, or skeletal muscle also occur in influenza patients. Influenza-associated complications impose sizeable healthcare costs in terms of outpatient contacts, hospitalizations, and antibiotic use. Vaccination is the primary prevention strategy for influenza and its complications, but has limitations. Neuraminidase inhibitors have demonstrated efficacy in reducing the incidence of influenza-associated complications in populations with different ages and risks. Influenza complications place a large burden on healthcare providers and society. Neuraminidase inhibitors can reduce the incidence of such complications, particularly in high-risk groups.Infection 07/2009; 37(3):186-96. · 2.86 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: To assess influenza vaccine effectiveness against influenzalike illness (ILI) and ILI impact on health care use and school performance among college and university students. Pooled analysis of 4 consecutive cohorts for the 2002-2003 through 2005-2006 seasons. Twin Cities campus of the University of Minnesota (2002-2003 through 2005-2006 seasons) and St. Olaf College in Northfield, Minnesota (2005-2006 season). Full-time students received e-mail invitations to participate in single-season cohorts. Internet-based surveys collected baseline (October) and follow-up (November-April) data. Influenza vaccination. Main Outcome Measure: Proportion of students with ILI. Multivariable regression models assessed the effectiveness of vaccination for reducing ILI during months when influenza was circulating while controlling for confounders and after pooling data across the 4 cohorts. There were 2804, 2783, 3534, and 3674 participants in the 2002-2003, 2003-2004, 2004-2005, and 2005-2006 cohorts respectively, and overall, 30.2% were vaccinated. In the pooled analysis, 24.1% of students experienced at least 1 ILI during influenza seasons. Vaccination was associated with a significant reduction in the likelihood of ILI during influenza seasons (adjusted odds ratio, 0.70; 95% confidence interval, 0.56-0.89) but not during noninfluenza periods (adjusted odds ratio, 0.98; 95% confidence interval, 0.73-1.30). Vaccination was also associated with significant reductions in ILI-associated provider visits, antibiotic use, impaired school performance, and numbers of days of missed class, missed work, and illness during the influenza seasons. Influenza vaccination was associated with substantial reductions in ILI and ILI-associated health care use and impairment of school performance. College and university students can experience substantial benefits from influenza vaccinations.JAMA Pediatrics 01/2009; 162(12):1113-8. · 4.25 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: In 2003, the World Health Assembly (WHA) issued a resolution for prevention and control of influenza pandemics and annual epidemics, which urges the European Union 25 (EU-25) Member States to (1) establish and implement strategies to increase vaccination coverage of all people at high risk, including the elderly and people with underlying disease, with the goal of attaining vaccination coverage of the elderly population of at least 50% by 2006 and 75% by 2010; (2) to assess the disease burden and economic impact of annual influenza epidemics as a basis for framing and implementing influenza prevention policies. This resolution was reinforced by the European Union (EU), where Member States agreed to make additional efforts to improve uptake on their territory in accordance with their own recommendations and to achieve the World Health Organisation (WHO) target of 75% in high risk groups before 2010. It was also noted that the changing demographic profile of the EU population would result in an increasing number of elderly people falling within the current target groups. To establish the number of people who may be eligible for influenza vaccination in the EU, and estimate the costs and consequences of not vaccinating this population for five EU Member States, France, Germany, Italy, Spain, and the UK. A mathematical model has previously been developed, in which vaccine distribution data are combined with demographic and health economics data to model the public health consequences of influenza and possible intervention strategies. We have extended that model using specific EU-25 demographic data on populations at risk of influenza during the inter-pandemic period. For each country, the total population and age breakdown was calculated to estimate the percentage of the population that falls under the WHA recommendations. Other target groups for influenza vaccination were identified by analysing estimating the proportion of the population with respiratory or cardiovascular related diseases, diabetes, AIDS or transplantation, as well as health care professionals. Target population size and possible vaccination coverage rates across the EU-25 Member States, along with the potential cost and health consequence impact is estimated. For the EU-25, it was estimated that up to 49.1% of the population (or 223.4 million people) should be vaccinated against influenza. This ranged from 41.6% in Cyprus to 56.4% in the UK. There were, on average, 174 vaccine doses distributed per 1000 population within the EU-25, which leads to an average vaccination rate of the target population of 35.4% based on current supply constraints. As a consequence, up to 144.4 million people who could be considered "at risk" may not currently be vaccinated. Implementing a 100% vaccination rate programme for all risk groups across the EU-25 would lead to an estimated reduction of number of influenza cases of 7.22 million, 1.96 million reduced PCP visits for influenza treatment, 796,743 less hospital admissions and 68,537 fewer influenza related deaths for all EU-25 countries. The implementation of a 100% vaccination rate programme for all risk groups in France, Germany, Italy, Spain and UK would require an additional 1.52 billion Euro. This would result in estimated savings of 39.45 million Euro of reduced primary care visits and further savings of 1.59 billion Euro in reduced hospitalisations respectively in these countries. There is a gap between current vaccination coverage and the EU recommendations. The public health consequences of low vaccination coverage include increased morbidity, hospitalisations and mortality associated with influenza-related complications. This model is a powerful tool to: (1) support EU public health officials in implementing recommendations; (2) to visualize the need for increased vaccination rates for better influenza control; (3) the consequences of low vaccine coverage.Vaccine 12/2006; 24(47-48):6812-22. · 3.49 Impact Factor