Head Start Participation and School Readiness: Evidence From the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort.

Developmental Psychology (Impact Factor: 3.21). 03/2013; DOI: 10.1037/a0032280
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Using data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort (n ≈ 6,950), a nationally representative sample of children born in 2001, we examined school readiness (academic skills and socioemotional well-being) at kindergarten entry for children who attended Head Start compared with those who experienced other types of child care (prekindergarten, other center-based care, other nonparental care, or parental care). Using propensity score matching methods and ordinary least squares regressions with rich controls, we found that Head Start participants had higher early reading and math scores than children in other nonparental care or parental care but also higher levels of conduct problems than those in parental care. Head Start participants had lower early reading scores compared with children in prekindergarten and had no differences in any outcomes compared with children in other center-based care. Head Start benefits were more pronounced for children who had low initial cognitive ability or parents with low levels of education or who attended Head Start for more than 20 hr per week. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved).

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The Infant Health and Development Program is a national collaborative study to test the efficacy of combining early child development and family support services with pediatric follow-up to reduce the incidence of health and developmental problems among low birth weight, preterm infants in eight medical school sites. Its efficacy in enhancing intellectual outcomes at age 3 in more and less environmentally vulnerable, low birth weight, preterm children, as defined by maternal education (high school completion or less vs some college) and race (black vs white/other), is explored. Children whose mothers had a high school education or less benefited from the intervention. This was true for both the black and white samples. Children whose mothers had attended college did not exhibit significant enhancement in IQ scores at 3 years. Birth weight affected the response to treatment for one of the four subgroups: Among white mothers with some college, the lighter (less than 2000 g) low birth weight, preterm children were less influenced by the intervention than were the corresponding heavier children. Implications for targeting certain subgroups of low birth weight, preterm children for services are considered.
    Pediatrics 07/1992; 89(6 Pt 2):1209-15. · 5.12 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: This study investigates the sustained effects into kindergarten and grade 1 of Project Head Start for disadvantaged black children. Participation in generic Head Start programs was compared to both no preschool and other preschool experience for disadvantaged children in two American cities in 1969-1970. Incorporating both pretest/posttest and comparison group information, the study has advantages over other Head Start impact studies. Both preprogram background and cognitive differences were controlled in a covariance analysis design, using dependent measures in the cognitive, verbal, and social domains. Children who attended Head Start maintained educationally substantive gains in general cognitive/analytic ability, especially when compared to children without preschool experience. These effects were not as large as those found immediately following the Head Start intervention. Findings suggest an effect of preschool rather than of Head Start per se. Initial findings of greater effectiveness of Head Start for children of below average initial ability were reduced but not reversed. The diminution of effects over time, especially for low-ability children, may reflect differences in quality of subsequent schooling or home environment.
    Child Development 05/1990; 61(2):495-507. · 4.72 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Educators need accurate assessments of preschool cognitive growth to guide curriculum design, evaluation, and timely modification of their instructional programs. But available tests do not provide content breadth or growth sensitivity over brief intervals. This article details evidence for a multiform, multiscale test criterion-referenced to national standards for alphabet knowledge, vocabulary, listening comprehension and mathematics, developed in field trials with 3433 3-5(1/2)-year-old Head Start children. The test enables repeated assessments (20-30 min per time point) over a school year. Each subscale is calibrated to yield scaled scores based on item response theory and Bayesian estimation of ability. Multilevel modeling shows that nearly all score variation is associated with child performance rather than examiner performance and individual growth-curve modeling demonstrates the high sensitivity of scores to child growth, controlled for age, sex, prior schooling, and language and special needs status.
    Journal of school psychology 11/2009; 47(5):337-66. · 2.31 Impact Factor