ATRP in the design of functional materials for biomedical applications. Prog Polym Sci

David H. Koch Institute for Integrative Cancer Research, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02139, 2 USA.
Progress in Polymer Science (Impact Factor: 26.93). 01/2012; 37(1):18-37. DOI: 10.1016/j.progpolymsci.2011.08.001
Source: PubMed


Atom Transfer Radical Polymerization (ATRP) is an effective technique for the design and preparation of multifunctional, nanostructured materials for a variety of applications in biology and medicine. ATRP enables precise control over macromolecular structure, order, and functionality, which are important considerations for emerging biomedical designs. This article reviews recent advances in the preparation of polymer-based nanomaterials using ATRP, including polymer bioconjugates, block copolymer-based drug delivery systems, cross-linked microgels/nanogels, diagnostic and imaging platforms, tissue engineering hydrogels, and degradable polymers. It is envisioned that precise engineering at the molecular level will translate to tailored macroscopic physical properties, thus enabling control of the key elements for realized biomedical applications.

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Available from: Jung Kwon Oh, May 06, 2014
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    • "Polymeric nanogels can be used as carriers for such imaging probes by imparting stability and increasing their utility. This leads to the evolution of a new class of agents termed 'nanohybrids' which are nanogels incorporating inorganic materials [19] [20]. Such nanohybrids can contain a wide variety of diagnostic and imaging agents for different types of medical conditions. "
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    ABSTRACT: Nanogels have emerged as a versatile hydrophilic platform for encapsulation of guest molecules with a capability to respond to external stimuli that can be used for a multitude of applications. These are soft materials capable of holding small molecular therapeutics, biomacromolecules, and inorganic nanoparticles within their crosslinked networks, which allows them to find applications for therapy as well as imaging of a variety of disease conditions. Their stimuli-responsive behavior can be easily controlled by selection of constituent polymer and crosslinker components to achieve a desired response at the site of action, which imparts nanogels the ability to participate actively in the intended function of the carrier system rather than being passive carriers of their cargo. These properties not only enhance the functionality of the carrier system but also help in overcoming many of the challenges associated with the delivery of cargo molecules, and this review aims to highlight the distinct and unique capabilities of nanogels as carrier systems for the delivery of an array of cargo molecules over other nanomaterials. Despite their obvious usefulness, nanogels are still not a commonplace occurrence in clinical practice. We have also made an attempt to highlight some of the major challenges that need to be overcome to advance nanogels further in the field of biomedical applications.
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    • "There are several reports on the synthesis of copolymers and the study of their properties, as these copolymers are important materials in the several fields of natural science, for example, colloid science and biochemistry, as well as in industrial fields [11] [12]. Moreover, the interface of ATRP with biology has always been one of the most attractive areas for applications due to ATRP's robust nature and ability to grow polymers from a variety of surfaces [10]. The essential feature of original " normal " (NI) ATRP is controlled by an equilibrium between a low concentration of active propagating species and a larger number of dormant chains, predominately in the form of initiating alkyl halides/macromolecular species (R n –X, where R n represents growing polymer chain and X is halogen atom) [13] [14] (Scheme 1). "
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    ABSTRACT: Atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) is currently one of the most often used synthetic polymerization methods to prepare well-defined copolymers with complex architecture. This review covers some fundamentals of ATRP, presents new ATRP initiating processes with ppm amounts of copper catalysts and various reducing agents together with recent developed electrochemically controlled ATRP, as well as discusses ATRP enables to precise control over macromolecular structure, order, and functionality. Moreover, this review briefly describes some of the copolymer coating materials that can now be prepared e.g., protective coatings with increased hydrophobicity, functional bioactive surfaces and functional biomaterials, as well as highlights some of the commercialization efforts currently underway. The research activities in the last decade indicate that ATRP has become an essential tool for the design and synthesis of advanced, noble and novel copolymer coatings.
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    • "Currently, several trials to prepare nanohybrids have been accomplished by surface-initiated polymerization, which is one of the important chemical approaches to produce a dense polymer array with controlled structures on the surfaces of inorganic nanoparticles with covalent linkage [16] [17]. Especially, the " living " /controlled radical polymerization, such as atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP), plays an increasingly important role in the grafting polymerization of the surface of inorganic nanoparticles, because of monomer versatility, compatible to various surfaces, excellent control over the molecular weight, polydispersity, and chain-end functionality of the grafted polymer [18] [19] [20]. The research activities in the last decade suggest that ATRP has evolved as hands-on tool for the design and synthesis of advanced biomaterials. "
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