Facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy region gene 1 over-expression causes primary defects of myogenic stem cells.

Journal of Cell Science (Impact Factor: 5.33). 03/2013; DOI: 10.1242/jcs.121533
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Over-expression of FSHD Region Gene 1 (FRG1) in mice, frogs and worms leads to muscular and vascular abnormalities. Nevertheless, the mechanism that follows FRG1 over-expression and finally leads to muscular defects is currently unknown. Here, we show that the earliest phenotype displayed by FRG1 mice is a postnatal muscle-growth defect. Long before the development of muscular dystrophy, FRG1 mice exhibit also a muscle regeneration impairment. Ex-vivo and in-vivo experiments revealed that FRG1 over-expression causes myogenic stem-cell activation, proliferative, clonogenic and differentiation defects. A comparative gene expression profiling of WT and FRG1 muscles from young pre-dystrophic mice identified differentially expressed genes in several gene categories and networks that could explain the emerging tissue and myogenic stem-cell defects. Overall, our study provides new insights in the pathways regulated by FRG1 and suggests that muscle-stem cells defects could contribute to the pathology of FRG1 mice.

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    ABSTRACT: Facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD), a common hereditary myopathy, is characterized by atrophy and weakness of selective muscle groups. FSHD is considered an autosomal dominant disease with incomplete penetrance and unpredictable variability of clinical expression within families. Mice over-expressing FRG1 (FSHD region gene 1), a candidate gene for this disease, develop a progressive myopathy with features of the human disorder. Here we show that in FRG1 over-expressing mice, fast muscles, which are the most affected by the dystrophic process, display anomalous fast skeletal troponin T (fTnT) isoform resulting from the aberrant splicing of the Tnnt3 mRNA that precedes the appearance of dystrophic signs. We determine that muscles of FRG1 mice develop less strength due to impaired contractile properties of fast-twitch fibers associated with an anomalous MyHC/actin ratio and a reduced sensitivity to Ca2+. We demonstrate that the decrease of Ca2+ sensitivity of fast-twitch fibers depends on the anomalous troponin complex and can be rescued by the substitution with the wild-type proteins. Finally, we find that the presence of aberrant splicing isoforms of TNNT3 characterizes dystrophic muscles in FSHD patients. Collectively, our results suggest that anomalous TNNT3 profile correlates with the muscle impairment in both humans and mice. On the basis of these results, we propose that aberrant fTnT represents a biological marker of muscle phenotype severity and disease progression.
    AJP Regulatory Integrative and Comparative Physiology 12/2013; · 3.28 Impact Factor


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May 23, 2014