Profile of circulating cytokines: Impact of OSA, obesity and acute cardiovascular events.
ABSTRACT Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is inducing oxidative stress and consequently promotes systemic inflammation and cardiovascular morbidity. The respective impact of obesity, sleep apnea and acute cardiovascular events on the profile of inflammatory cytokines has not been extensively evaluated. We examined the profile of circulating cytokines in a case-control study comparing nonobese or obese patients with or without sleep apnea and with or without an acute cardiovascular event. Patients were assessed by sleep studies and inflammatory (hs-CRP, Leptin, RANTES, MCP1, IL6, IL8, TNF-α) and anti-inflammatory (adiponectin, IL1-Ra) cytokines profile. A cardiovascular phenotyping was performed including carotid intima-media thickness, pulse wave velocity and 24h blood pressure monitoring. In comparison with patients without sleep apnea or without comorbidities, patients with the combination of an acute cardiovascular event and pre-existing sleep apnea showed a higher burden of systemic inflammation with significant increase in serum levels of hs-CRP, IL1-Ra, IL-8, IL-6, TNF-α, Rantes and sICAM. Rantes and sICAM serum levels were independently associated with AHI after an acute cardiovascular event. Serum levels of different inflammatory markers were significantly increased in patients with the combination of sleep apnea and an acute cardiovascular event. Since these biomarkers could be associated with worsened cardiovascular outcome, diagnosing and treating associated sleep apnea is potentially important in patients after an acute cardiovascular event.
SourceAvailable from: Paschalis Steiropoulos[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) is characterized by recurrent episodes of upper airway collapse associated with oxygen desaturation and sleep disruption. It is proposed that these periodic changes lead to molecular variations that can be detected by assessing serum biomarkers. Studies have identified inflammatory, oxidative, and metabolic perturbations attributable to sleep-disordered breathing. Given that OSAS is associated with increased cardiovascular and cerebrovascular morbidity, the ideal biomarker should enable timely recognition with the possibility of intervention. There is accumulating data on the utility of serum biomarkers for the evaluation of disease severity, prognosis, and response to treatment. However, current knowledge is limited by data collection techniques, disease complexity, and potential confounding factors. The current paper reviews the literature on the use of serum biomarkers in OSAS. It is concluded that the ideal serum biomarker still needs to be discovered, while caution is needed in the interpretation of hitherto available results.01/2014; 2014:930535. DOI:10.1155/2014/930535
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ABSTRACT: Abstract Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) consists of sleep-related repetitive obstructions of upper airways which generate episodes of recurrent or intermittent hypoxia (IH). OSA commonly generates cardiovascular and metabolic pathologies defining the obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS). Literature usually links OSA-associated pathologies to IH episodes which would cause an oxidative status and a carotid body-mediated sympathetic hyperactivity. Since cardiovascular and metabolic pathologies in obese and OSAS patients are analogous, we have used models (24 weeks old Wistar rats) of IH (applied from weeks 22 to 24) and diet-induced obesity (O; high fat-fed animals from weeks 12 to 24) to define the effect of each individual maneuver and their combination on animal's oxidative status and sympathetic tone, quantifying cardiovascular and metabolic parameters and their deviation from normality. We found that IH and O cause an oxidative status (increased lipid peroxides and diminished activities of superoxide dismutases), an inflammatory status (augmented C-reactive protein and nuclear factor kappa-B activation) and sympathetic hyperactivity (augmented plasma and renal artery catecholamine levels and synthesis rate); combined treatments worsened those alterations. IH and O augmented liver lipid content and plasma cholesterol, triglycerides, leptin, glycaemia, insulin levels and HOMA index, and caused hypertension; most of these parameters aggravated when IH and O were combined. IH diminished ventilatory response to hypoxia and hypercapnia and O created a restrictive ventilatory pattern; combination of treatments leads to a restrictive hypoventilation. Data demonstrate that IH and O cause comparable metabolic and cardiovascular pathologies via misregulation of the redox status and sympathetic hyperactivity.Journal of Applied Physiology 08/2014; 117(7). DOI:10.1152/japplphysiol.00454.2014 · 3.43 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) exacerbations are acute events of worsened respiratory symptoms and enhanced inflammation partly mediated by NF-κB activation. RelB, an NF-κB family member, suppresses cigarette smoke-induced inflammation but its expression in COPD is unknown. Moreover, there is no information on its association with clinical features of COPD. The objectives of this study were to assess RelB expression relative to markers of inflammation as well as its association with cardiovascular and pulmonary features of COPD patients at stable-state and exacerbation. METHODS: Data from 48 COPD patients were analyzed. Blood samples were collected from stable-state and exacerbating patients. After RNA isolation, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) was performed to assess RelB, Cox-2, IL-8 and IL-1β mRNA expression and their associations with measured clinical variables. RESULTS: Of the 48 COPD subjects, 18 were in stable-state and 30 were in exacerbation. RelB mRNA expression was lower than that of Cox-2, IL-8, and IL-1β in all cases (all p<0.001, except for IL-8 at exacerbation (p = 0.22)). Cox-2, IL-8 and IL-1β were significantly associated with clinical features of patients in both stable-state and at exacerbation. There was no association with RelB expression and any clinical features in COPD subjects at stable-state. RelB mRNA levels were significantly associated with cardiovascular events such as systolic blood pressure during exacerbation. CONCLUSIONS: RelB mRNA expression is lower than that of the other inflammatory mediators. Expression of Cox-2, IL-8 and IL-1β were related to clinical features in both stable-state and at exacerbation. However, RelB expression was associated with clinical features of patients only during exacerbation, suggesting that RelB may represent a novel marker of health outcomes, in particular cardiovascular, during exacerbation in COPD.PLoS ONE 11/2014; 9(11):e112965. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0112965 · 3.53 Impact Factor