Unilateral Humoral Rejection After Reoperative Single-Lung Transplant

Division of Cardiac Surgery, The Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, Baltimore, Maryland.
The Annals of thoracic surgery (Impact Factor: 3.65). 04/2013; 95(4):e79-81. DOI: 10.1016/j.athoracsur.2012.09.089
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The role of antibody-mediated rejection in acute and chronic rejection after lung transplantation is poorly understood. We report the case of a prior single-lung transplant recipient undergoing an acute antibody-mediated rejection isolated to her new, contralateral single-lung transplant. A 44-year-old woman 6 years after undergoing a single-lung transplant for idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis underwent a second single-lung transplant for bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome. Despite a negative crossmatch, she subsequently exhibited severe antibody-mediated rejection to her new allograft within 6 days of transplantation. The process of allograft sensitization is dynamic, and further study is warranted to better understand this process.

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Solid phase antibody assays are increasingly used to provide quantitative measures of donor-specific HLA antibodies for assessment of pretransplant risk, although cell-based crossmatches continue to serve as gold standards for determination of donor HLA antibody strength. This study determined the ability of HLA antibody solid phase assays to predict the strength of cell-based flow cytometric (FC) and complement-dependent cytotoxicity (CDC) crossmatches. Eighty-two recipient/donors pairs were analyzed using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analyses to determine the accuracy of donor-specific median fluorescence intensity values (Σ MFI) from single antigen bead assays for predicting strong FC and CDC crossmatches. Diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of optimal Σ MFI values were highest for predicting strong T cell FCs. Σ MFI values showed good sensitivity for predicting positive direct and AHG-augmented CDC crossmatches (91% and 94%, respectively), but with lower specificity (67% each). Specificity and sensitivity for predicting positive B cell CDC crossmatches were 73% and 84%. Σ MFI values derived from single antigen bead assays can predict strong flow and positive CDC crossmatches, but with tradeoffs between sensitivity and specificity. The results support the use of solid phase assays for quantitative virtual crossmatching and as a replacement for cell-based crossmatching.
    Human immunology 04/2012; 73(7):706-10. DOI:10.1016/j.humimm.2012.04.007 · 2.28 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Although hyperacute rejection has been clinically and pathologically fully described in recipients of other solid organ transplants, to our knowledge, there have been no previous fully documented cases in recipients of lung transplants. This case of clinical hyperacute rejection is corroborated by a positive, donor-antigen-specific IgG-mediated lymphocytotoxic crossmatch (LXM), and demonstrated histopathologic, immunofluorescent, and electron microscopic features consistent with hyperacute rejection as described in other organs. Features of diffuse alveolar damage, neutrophilic infiltrates, and endothelial and epithelial damage with IgG-fluorescent staining within alveolar spaces and septae were demonstrated. The management of hyperacute rejection and its outcome are reviewed. Historically a pretransplant crossmatch is not considered a routine part of lung transplantation. The outcome of this patient suggests that LXM should be performed routinely prior to lung transplant in all patients with high panel-reactive antibodies, and should be performed whenever circumstances permit.
    Chest 09/1996; 110(2):559-62. · 7.13 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Panel-reactive antibody (PRA) is commonly used before thoracic organ transplantation to estimate a potential recipient's degree of humoral sensitization. To assess the influence of an elevated PRA on survival and the incidence of rejection in pulmonary transplantation, the records of 247 patients that underwent single or double lung transplantation were reviewed. Twenty-one of 247 patients (8.5%) had PRA values greater than 10%. Survival of this population was not significantly different from that of patients with low PRA levels: 74% (low PRA) vs 65% (elevated PRA) at 1 year and 58% in both groups at 3 years. The acute rejection rates (episodes/first 100 days) for the elevated and low PRA groups were 2.1 and 1.9, respectively (p = NS). Obliterative bronchiolitis developed in 38.9% of the high and 31.2% of the low PRA groups (p = NS). Six of 247 patients had a retrospective positive lymphocytotoxic cross-match result; three had PRA values greater than 10%. Patients with a positive cross-match result experienced similar survival and incidence of rejection as the remainder of the population. Among 957 patients evaluated for lung transplantation, 16 (1.7%) had a PRA (with dithiothreitol) greater than 15%. All had a history of pregnancy, blood transfusion, connective tissue disease, or previous transplantation. Humoral sensitization is uncommon in the lung transplantation population. A modestly elevated PRA does not predict survival or the development of acute rejection or bronchiolitis obliterans. PRA testing before lung transplantation should be reserved for those patients with specific risk factors for humoral sensitization.
    The Journal of Heart and Lung Transplantation 05/1997; 16(4):408-15. · 5.61 Impact Factor