Should pancreatectomy with islet cell autotransplantation in patients with chronic alcoholic pancreatitis be abandoned?

University of Alabama at Birmingham, Department of Surgery, Birmingham, AL.
Journal of the American College of Surgeons (Impact Factor: 4.45). 04/2013; 216(4):591-6. DOI: 10.1016/j.jamcollsurg.2012.12.043
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Pancreatectomy or drainage has been advocated for pain due to chronic pancreatitis. Islet cell autotransplantation (IAT) may improve quality of life (QOL); optimal patient selection has not been established.
Outcomes of 100 patients who underwent pancreatectomy with islet isolation between 2005 and 2012 were assessed by etiology (alcoholic pancreatitis [AP] 30%, and nonalcoholic pancreatitis [NAP] 70%). Insulin requirement, Short Form-36, and McGill Pain Questionnaires were assessed. Data were analyzed using SASv9.2.
Of the 100 patients, isolation was unsuccessful in 9 patients due to fibrosis. Alcoholic pancreatitis was associated with 7 of 9 failed isolations (23% vs 3%, p < 0.01), and all of these patients are now diabetic. Ninety-one patients (age 44 years, follow-up 19 months, 23% AP) underwent resection with IAT. Total islet yield (islet cell equivalents [IEQ]) and IEQ/kg body weight were less for patients with AP (81,000 vs 150,000, p < 0.01; 1,260 vs 2,190, respectively, p = 0.01) overall and more specifically, for total pancreatectomy (92,000 vs 188,000, respectively, p = 0.02). Twenty-eight (34%) of all patients who had resections and 15% of those undergoing total pancreatectomy are insulin free. Multivariate analysis identified AP as an independent predictor of insulin units/day (p = 0.01). Complete pre- and postoperative QOL and pain surveys were available on 69 patients. Patients with AP had less QOL improvement (1 of 8 vs 5 of 8 domains, p < 0.01) and "present pain" improvement at 2 years from preoperative levels in those with NAP; no improvement in QOL was seen in those with AP (NAP 2.7 to 1.2, p < 0.01; AP 2.7 to 2.2, p > 0.05).
After pancreatic resection with planned IAT, AP resulted in failed isolations, lower yields, higher insulin requirements, poor long-term QOL improvement, and no improvement in pain scores compared with NAP. Further studies should define criteria for resection and IAT for patients with alcoholic chronic pancreatitis.

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    ABSTRACT: Description Total pancreatectomy with islet autotransplantation (TPIAT) is a surgical procedure used to treat severe complications of chronic pancreatitis or very high risk of pancreatic cancer while reducing the risk of severe diabetes mellitus. However, clear guidance on indications, contraindications, evaluation, timing, and follow-up are lacking. Methods A working group reviewed the medical, psychological, and surgical options and supporting literature related to TPIAT for a consensus meeting during PancreasFest. Results Five major areas requiring clinical evaluation and management were addressed: These included: 1) indications for TPIAT; 2) contraindications for TPIAT; 3) optimal timing of the procedure; 4) need for a multi-disciplinary team and the roles of the members; 5) life-long management issues following TPIAP including diabetes monitoring and nutrition evaluation. Conclusions TPIAT is an effective method of managing the disabling complications of chronic pancreatitis and risk of pancreatic cancer in very high risk patients. Careful evaluation and long-term management of candidate patients by qualified multidisciplinary teams is required. Multiple recommendations for further research were also identified.
    Pancreatology 01/2013; · 2.50 Impact Factor