Distinct Roles for Neutrophils and Dendritic Cells in Inflammation and Autoimmunity in motheaten Mice.
ABSTRACT The motheaten mouse has long served as a paradigm for complex autoimmune and inflammatory disease. Null mutations in Ptpn6, which encodes the nonreceptor protein-tyrosine phosphatase Shp1, cause the motheaten phenotype. However, Shp1 regulates multiple signaling pathways in different hematopoietic cell types, so the cellular and molecular mechanism of autoimmunity and inflammation in the motheaten mouse has remained unclear. By using floxed Ptpn6 mice, we dissected the contribution of innate immune cells to the motheaten phenotype. Ptpn6 deletion in neutrophils resulted in cutaneous inflammation, but not autoimmunity, providing an animal model of human neutrophilic dermatoses. By contrast, dendritic cell deletion caused severe autoimmunity, without inflammation. Genetic and biochemical analysis showed that inflammation was caused by enhanced neutrophil integrin signaling through Src-family and Syk kinases, whereas autoimmunity resulted from exaggerated MyD88-dependent signaling in dendritic cells. Our data demonstrate that disruption of distinct Shp1-regulated pathways in different cell types combine to cause motheaten disease.
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ABSTRACT: Neutrophilic dermatoses are a spectrum of autoinflammatory skin disorders that are characterized by extensive infiltration of neutrophils into the epidermis and dermis. The underlining biological pathways that are responsible for this heterogeneous group of cutaneous diseases have remained elusive. However, recent work from our laboratory and other groups has shown that missense mutations in Ptpn6, which encodes for the non-receptor protein tyrosine phosphatase Src homology region 2 (SH2) domain-containing phosphatase-1 (SHP-1), results in a skin disease with many of the major histopathological and clinical features that encompass neutrophilic dermatoses in humans. In particular, we found that loss-of-function mutation in Ptpn6 results in unremitting footpad swelling, suppurative inflammation, and neutrophilia. Dysregulated wound healing responses were discovered to contribute to chronic inflammatory skin disease in SHP-1 defective mice and genetic abrogation of interleukin-1 receptor (IL-1R) protected mice from cutaneous inflammation, suggesting that IL-1-mediated events potentiate disease. Surprisingly, inflammasome activation and IL-1β-mediated events were dispensable for Ptpn6(spin) -mediated footpad disease. Instead, RIP1-mediated regulation of IL-1α was identified to be the major driver of inflammation and tissue damage.01/2014; 2(1):e27742. DOI:10.4161/rdis.27742
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ABSTRACT: Natural killer (NK) cells are cytotoxic innate lymphoid cells that are involved in immune defense. NK cell reactivity is controlled in part by MHC class I recognition by inhibitory receptors, but the underlying molecular mechanisms remain undefined. Using a mouse model of conditional deletion in NK cells, we show here that the protein tyrosine phosphatase SHP-1 is essential for the inhibitory function of NK cell MHC class I receptors. In the absence of SHP-1, NK cells are hyporesponsive to tumour cells in vitro and their early Ca(2+) signals are compromised. Mice without SHP-1 in NK cells are unable to reject MHC class I-deficient transplants and to control tumours in vivo. Thus, the inhibitory activity of SHP-1 is needed for setting the threshold of NK cell reactivity.Nature Communications 10/2014; 5:5108. DOI:10.1038/ncomms6108 · 10.74 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Germline or B-cell-specific loss of Ptpn6 gene encoding the Shp1 protein tyrosine phosphatase leads to skewed B lymphopoiesis and systemic autoimmunity. Here, to study its role in B-cell terminal differentiation, we generated Ptpn6(f/f)Aicda(Cre/+) mice with Shp1 ablated only in activated B cells. We show that Ptpn6(f/f)Aicda(Cre/+) mice have normal B-cell development but exhibit defective class-switched primary and recalled antibody response to a T-cell-dependent antigen. Germinal centres are present but do not persist and memory B cells are not formed. Interestingly, Shp1-deficient plasma cells are generated in the spleen but do not contribute to the bone marrow long-lived pool. Plasma cells lacking Shp1 exhibit aberrant α4β1 integrin activation due to dysregulated Src- and PI3-kinase signalling and manifest attenuated migration in vitro and defective bone marrow homing when reconstituted in vivo. Interrupting α4β1-VCAM-1 interaction rectifies this defect. These data suggest that Shp1 signalling is required for the establishment of a life-long protective humoral immunity.Nature Communications 06/2014; 5:4273. DOI:10.1038/ncomms5273 · 10.74 Impact Factor