Inhibition of U-87 MG glioblastoma by AN-152 (AEZS-108), a targeted cytotoxic analog of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone

Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Miami, FL.
Oncotarget (Impact Factor: 6.36). 03/2013; 4(3). DOI: 10.18632/oncotarget.917
Source: PubMed


Glioblastoma multiforme is the most frequent tumor of the central nervous system in adults and has a dismal clinical outcome, which necessitates the development of new therapeutic approaches. We investigated in vivo the action of the targeted cytotoxic analog of luteinizing hormone releasing hormone, AN-152 (AEZS-108) in nude mice (Ncr nu/nu strain) bearing xenotransplanted U-87 MG glioblastoma tumors. We evaluated in vitro the expression of LHRH receptors, proliferation, apoptosis and the release of oncogenic and tumor suppressor cytokines. Clinical and U-87 MG samples of glioblastoma tumors expressed LHRH receptors. Treatment of nude mice with AN-152, once a week at an intravenous dose of 413 nmol/20g, for six weeks resulted in 76 % reduction in tumor growth. AN-152 nearly completely abolished tumor progression and elicited remarkable apoptosis in vitro. Genomic (RT-PCR) and proteomic (ELISA, Western blot) studies revealed that AN-152 activated apoptosis, as reflected by the changes in p53 and its regulators and substrates, inhibited cell growth, and elicited changes in intermediary filament pattern. AN-152 similarly reestablished contact regulation as demonstrated by expression of adhesion molecules and inhibited vascularization, as reflected by the transcription of angiogenic factors. Our findings suggest that targeted cytotoxic analog AN-152 (AEZS-108) should be considered for a treatment of glioblastomas.

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Available from: Ferenc Rick, Oct 05, 2015
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    • "LHRH and its receptor (LHRH-R) are not limited to the hypothalamic-pituitary axis [13]. In the periphery, the LHRH system regulates gonadal functions and appears to serve as a growth factor of benign conditions [14-17] and various cancers including breast, lung, ovary, endometrial, kidney, bladder, colon, pancreas and prostate [18-25]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Management of castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) is challenging due to lack of efficacious therapy. Luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone analogs appear to act directly on cells based on the LHRH receptors on human prostate adenocarcinoma cells. We explored anticancer activity of a cytotoxic analog of LHRH, AEZS-108 consisting of LHRH agonist linked to doxorubicin. Nude mice bearing DU-145 tumors were used to compare antitumor effects of AEZS-108 with its individual constituents or their unconjugated combination. The tumor growth inhibition of conjugate was greatest among treatment groups (90.5% inhibition vs. 41% by [D-Lys(6)]LHRH+DOX). The presence of LHRH receptors on DU-145 cells was confirmed by immunocytochemistry. In vitro, AEZS-108 significantly inhibited cell proliferation (61.2% inhibition) and elevated apoptosis rates (by 46%). By the detection of the inherent doxorubicin fluorescence, unconjugated doxorubicin was seen in the nucleus; the conjugate was perinuclear and at cell membrane. Autophagy, visualized by GFP-tagged p62 reporter, was increased by AEZS-108 (7.9-fold vs. 5.3-fold by DOX+[D-Lys(6)]LHRH. AEZS-108 more effectively increased reactive oxygen species (ROS, 2-fold vs. 1.4-fold by DOX+[D-Lys(6)]LHRH) and levels of the apoptotic regulator p21 in vivo and in vitro. We demonstrate robust inhibitory effects of the targeted cytotoxic LHRH analog AEZS-108 on LHRHR positive castration-resistant prostate cancer cells.
    Oncotarget 06/2014; 5(12). DOI:10.18632/oncotarget.2146 · 6.36 Impact Factor
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    • "Consequently, it is obvious that these effects depend not only on the compounds used for therapy, but also on the type of tumor. Thus, it is understandable that in these experiments with pancreatic tumors the two compounds similarly affected genes associated with apoptosis, while they acted differently on these same genes in bladder cancers [43] or glioblastomas [44] in other experiments. "
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    ABSTRACT: Pancreatic carcinoma is one of the cancers with the worse prognosis, thus any therapeutic improvement is imperative. Cytotoxic LH-RH analog, AN-152 (proprietary designation, AEZS-108), consisting of doxorubicin (DOX) conjugated to D-Lys6LH-RH, is now in clinical trials for targeted therapy of several sex hormone-dependent tumors that express LH-RH receptors. We investigated LH-RH receptors in human pancreatic carcinoma and the effects of AN-152 (AEZS-108) on experimental pancreatic cancers. We determined LH-RH receptor presence in human pancreatic cancer samples by immunohistochemistry and, in three human pancreatic cancer lines (SW-1990, Panc-1 and CFPAC-1), by binding assays and Western blotting. The effects of the cytotoxic LH-RH analog were investigated on growth of these same cancer lines xenografted into nude mice. We also analyzed differences between the antitumor effects of the cytotoxic analog and its cytotoxic radical alone, doxorubicin (DOX), on the expression of cancer-related genes by PCR arrays. LH-RH receptors were expressed in two randomly selected surgically removed human pancreatic cancer samples and in all three cancer lines. Cytotoxic LH-RH analogs powerfully inhibited growth of all three tumor lines in nude mice; AN-152 was significantly stronger than DOX on Panc-1 and CFPAC-1 cancers. PCR array showed that cytotoxic LH-RH analog AN-152 affected the expression of genes associated with cellular migration, invasion, metastasis and angiogenesis more favorably than DOX, however the changes in gene expression varied considerably among the three cancer lines. Cytotoxic LH-RH analog, AEZS-108, may be a useful agent for the treatment of LH-RH receptor positive advanced pancreatic carcinoma.
    Oncotarget 06/2013; 4(5):751-60. DOI:10.18632/oncotarget.1044 · 6.36 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The dismal prognosis of malignant brain tumors drives the development of new treatment modalities. In view of the multiple activities of growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH), we hypothesized that pretreatment with a GHRH agonist, JI-34, might increase the susceptibility of U-87 MG glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) cells to subsequent treatment with the cytotoxic drug, doxorubicin (DOX). This concept was corroborated by our findings, in vivo, showing that the combination of the GHRH agonist, JI-34, and DOX inhibited the growth of GBM tumors, transplanted into nude mice, more than DOX alone. In vitro, the pretreatment of GBM cells with JI-34 potentiated inhibitory effects of DOX on cell proliferation, diminished cell size and viability, and promoted apoptotic processes, as shown by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide proliferation assay, ApoLive-Glo multiplex assay, and cell volumetric assay. Proteomic studies further revealed that the pretreatment with GHRH agonist evoked differentiation decreasing the expression of the neuroectodermal stem cell antigen, nestin, and up-regulating the glial maturation marker, GFAP. The GHRH agonist also reduced the release of humoral regulators of glial growth, such as FGF basic and TGFβ. Proteomic and gene-expression (RT-PCR) studies confirmed the strong proapoptotic activity (increase in p53, decrease in v-myc and Bcl-2) and anti-invasive potential (decrease in integrin α3) of the combination of GHRH agonist and DOX. These findings indicate that the GHRH agonists can potentiate the anticancer activity of the traditional chemotherapeutic drug, DOX, by multiple mechanisms including the induction of differentiation of cancer cells.
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 12/2013; 111(2). DOI:10.1073/pnas.1322622111 · 9.67 Impact Factor
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