Birth weight and risk of childhood acute leukaemia
Studies of risk factors for acute leukaemia are inconclusive. This case-control study was done in West Azerbaijan province, Islamic Republic of Iran, to determine the relationship between birth weight and acute leukaemia in children aged under 15 years. For every patient 2 age- and sex-matched controls were selected from hospital and community populations. Of 130 cases diagnosed over the period 2003-2009,108 (83.1%) had lymphoblastic and 22 (16.9%) myloblastic type. Significantly more of them were male than female (55.4% versus 44.6%). In a multivariate logistic regression model variables significantly associated with acute leukaemia were: birth weight (OR = 2.25), birth order (OR = 2.25), birth place (OR = 7.93), history of chickenpox (OR = 0.46) and mothers' education (OR = 3.23). The risk of acute leukaemia increased significantly with increasing birth weight in the total group and among girls, but not among boys.
Available from: Cassandra Spracklen
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We aimed to determine the association between self-reported birth weight and incident cancer in the Women's Health Initiative Observational Study cohort, a large multiethnic cohort of postmenopausal women.
65,850 women reported their birth weight by category (<6 lbs, 6-7 lbs 15 oz, 8-9 lbs 15 oz, and ≥10 lbs). All self-reported, incident cancers were adjudicated by study staff. We used Cox proportional hazards regression to estimate crude and adjusted hazard ratios (aHR) for associations between birth weight and: (1) all cancer sites combined, (2) gynecologic cancers, and (3) several site-specific cancer sites.
After adjustments, birth weight was positively associated with the risk of lung cancer (p=0.01), and colon cancer (p=0.04). An inverse trend was observed between birth weight and risk for leukemia (p=0.04). A significant trend was not observed with breast cancer risk (p=0.67); however, women born weighing ≥10 lbs were less likely to develop breast cancer compared to women born between 6 lbs-7 lbs 15 oz (aHR 0.77, 95% CI 0.63, 0.94).
Birth weight category appears to be significantly associated with the risk of any postmenopausal incident cancer, though the direction of the association varies by cancer type.
Cancer Epidemiology 08/2014; 38(5). DOI:10.1016/j.canep.2014.07.004 · 2.71 Impact Factor
Available from: Leeka Kheifets
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ABSTRACT: Down syndrome (DS) is a common congenital anomaly, and children with DS have a substantially higher risk of leukemia. Although understanding of genetic and epigenetic changes of childhood leukemia has improved, the causes of childhood leukemia and the potential role of environmental exposures in leukemogenesis remain largely unknown. Although many epidemiologic studies have examined a variety of environmental exposures, ionizing radiation remains the only generally accepted environmental risk factor for childhood leukemia. Among suspected risk factors, infections, exposure to pesticides, and extremely low frequency magnetic fields are notable. While there are well-defined differences between leukemia in children with and without DS, studies of risk factors for leukemia among DS children are generally consistent with trends seen among non-DS (NDS) children.
We provide background on DS epidemiology and review the similarities and differences in biological and epidemiologic features of leukemia in children with and without DS. We propose that both acute lymphoblastic and acute myeloblastic leukemia among DS children can serve as an informative model for development of childhood leukemia. Further, the high rates of leukemia among DS children make it possible to study this disease using a cohort approach, a powerful method that is unfeasible in the general population due to the rarity of childhood leukemia.
Cancer Epidemiology 10/2014; 38(5). DOI:10.1016/j.canep.2014.07.006 · 2.71 Impact Factor
Available from: Eftichia Stiakaki
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ABSTRACT: To systematically review studies and meta-analyze the literature on the association of maternal and/or index child's coffee, tea, and cola consumption with subsequent development of childhood leukemia and its major subtypes.
Eligible studies were identified through a detailed algorithm and hand-search of eligible articles' references; thereafter, summary-effect estimates were calculated by leukemia subtype and dose-response meta-analyses were performed.
Twelve case-control studies, comprising a total of 3649 cases and 5705 controls, were included. High maternal coffee consumption was positively associated with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL; OR: 1.43, 95%CI: 1.22-1.68) and acute myeloid leukemia (AML; OR: 2.52, 95%CI: 1.59-3.57). Any or low to moderate maternal cola consumption was also positively associated with overall leukemia (AL) and ALL, A linear trend between coffee and cola consumption and childhood leukemia was observed in the dose-response analyses. On the contrary, low to moderate tea consumption was inversely associated with AL (OR: 0.85, 95%CI: 0.75-0.97), although the trend was non-significant. A null association between offspring's cola consumption and leukemia was noted.
Our findings confirm the detrimental association between maternal coffee consumption and childhood leukemia risk and provide indications for a similar role of maternal cola intake. In contrast, an inverse association with tea was found, implying that other micronutrients contained in this beverage could potentially counterbalance the deleterious effects of caffeine. Further research should focus on the intake of specific micronutrients, different types of coffee and tea, specific immunophenotypes of the disease, and the modifying effect of genetic polymorphisms.
Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
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