Pathology Associated with AAV Mediated Expression of Beta Amyloid or C100 in Adult Mouse Hippocampus and Cerebellum

Case Western Reserve University, United States of America
PLoS ONE (Impact Factor: 3.53). 03/2013; 8(3):e59166. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0059166
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Accumulation of beta amyloid (Aβ) in the brain is a primary feature of Alzheimer's disease (AD) but the exact molecular mechanisms by which Aβ exerts its toxic actions are not yet entirely clear. We documented pathological changes 3 and 6 months after localised injection of recombinant, bi-cistronic adeno-associated viral vectors (rAAV2) expressing human Aβ40-GFP, Aβ42-GFP, C100-GFP or C100(V717F)-GFP into the hippocampus and cerebellum of 8 week old male mice. Injection of all rAAV2 vectors resulted in wide-spread transduction within the hippocampus and cerebellum, as shown by expression of transgene mRNA and GFP protein. Despite the lack of accumulation of Aβ protein after injection with AAV vectors, injection of rAAV2-Aβ42-GFP and rAAV2- C100(V717F)-GFP into the hippocampus resulted in significantly increased microgliosis and altered permeability of the blood brain barrier, the latter revealed by high levels of immunoglobulin G (IgG) around the injection site and the presence of IgG positive cells. In comparison, injection of rAAV2-Aβ40-GFP and rAAV2-C100-GFP into the hippocampus resulted in substantially less neuropathology. Injection of rAAV2 vectors into the cerebellum resulted in similar types of pathological changes, but to a lesser degree. The use of viral vectors to express different types of Aβ and C100 is a powerful technique with which to examine the direct in vivo consequences of Aβ expression in different regions of the mature nervous system and will allow experimentation and analysis of pathological AD-like changes in a broader range of species other than mouse.

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a common chronic functional gastrointestinal disorder world wide that lasts for decades. The human gut harbors a diverse population of microbial organisms which is symbiotic and important for well being. However, studies on conventional, germ-free, and obese animals have shown that alteration in normal commensal gut microbiota and an increase in pathogenic microbiota-termed "dysbiosis", impact gut function, homeostasis, and health. Diarrhea, constipation, visceral hypersensitivity, and abdominal pain arise in IBS from the gut-induced dysfunctional metabolic, immune, and neuro-immune communication. Dysbiosis in IBS is associated with gut inflammation. Gut-related inflammation is pivotal in promoting endotoxemia, systemic inflammation, and neuroinflammation. A significant proportion of IBS patients chronically consume alcohol, non-steroidal anti-inflammatories, and fatty diet; they may also suffer from co-morbid respiratory, neuromuscular, psychological, sleep, and neurological disorders. The above pathophysiological substrate is underpinned by dysbiosis, and dysfunctional bidirectional "Gut-Brain Axis" pathways. Pathogenic gut microbiota-related systemic inflammation (due to increased lipopolysaccharide and pro-inflammatory cytokines, and barrier dysfunction), may trigger neuroinflammation enhancing dysfunctional brain regions including hippocampus and cerebellum. These as well as dysfunctional vago-vagal gut-brain axis may promote cognitive impairment. Indeed, inflammation is characteristic of a broad spectrum of neurodegenerative diseases that manifest demntia. It is argued that an awareness of pathophysiological impact of IBS and implementation of appropriate therapeutic measures may prevent cognitive impairment and minimize vulnerability to dementia.
    Neurochemical Research 03/2014; DOI:10.1007/s11064-014-1266-6