A Model of Dendritic Cell Therapy for Melanoma

Department of Mathematics, Harvey Mudd College Claremont, CA, USA.
Frontiers in Oncology 01/2013; 3:56. DOI: 10.3389/fonc.2013.00056
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Dendritic cells are a promising immunotherapy tool for boosting an individual's antigen-specific immune response to cancer. We develop a mathematical model using differential and delay-differential equations to describe the interactions between dendritic cells, effector-immune cells, and tumor cells. We account for the trafficking of immune cells between lymph, blood, and tumor compartments. Our model reflects experimental results both for dendritic cell trafficking and for immune suppression of tumor growth in mice. In addition, in silico experiments suggest more effective immunotherapy treatment protocols can be achieved by modifying dose location and schedule. A sensitivity analysis of the model reveals which patient-specific parameters have the greatest impact on treatment efficacy.

  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Cancer therapies that harness the actions of the immune response, such as targeted monoclonal antibody treatments and therapeutic vaccines, are relatively new and promising in the landscape of cancer treatment options. Mathematical modeling and simulation of immune-modifying therapies can help to offset the costs of drug discovery and development, and encourage progress toward new immunotherapies. Despite advances in cancer immunology research, questions such as how the immune system interacts with a growing tumor, and which components of the immune system play significant roles in responding to immunotherapy are still not well understood. Mathematical modeling and simulation are powerful tools that provide an analytical framework in which to address such questions. A quantitative understanding of the kinetics of the immune response to treatment is crucial in designing treatment strategies, such as dosing, timing, and predicting the response to a specific treatment. These models can be used both descriptively and predictively. In this chapter, various mathematical models that address different cancer treatments, including cytotoxic chemotherapy, immunotherapy, and combinations of both treatments, are presented. The aim of this chapter is to highlight the importance of mathematical modeling and simulation in the design of immunotherapy protocols for cancer treatment. The results demonstrate the power of these approaches in explaining determinants that are fundamental to cancer-immune dynamics, therapeutic success, and the development of efficient therapies.
    Journal of Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics 10/2014; 41(5). DOI:10.1007/s10928-014-9386-9 · 1.46 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: In this paper, a tumor and immune system interaction model consisted of two differential equations with three time delays is considered in which the delays describe the proliferation of tumor cells, the process of effector cells growth stimulated by tumor cells, and the differentiation of immune effector cells, respectively. Conditions for the asymptotic stability of equilibria and existence of Hopf bifurcations are obtained by analyzing the roots of a second degree exponential polynomial characteristic equation with delay dependent coefficients. It is shown that the positive equilibrium is asymptotically stable if all three delays are less than their corresponding critical values and Hopf bifurcations occur if any one of these delays passes through its critical value. Numerical simulations are carried out to illustrate the rich dynamical behavior of the model with different delay values including the existence of regular and irregular long periodic oscillations.
    Chaos An Interdisciplinary Journal of Nonlinear Science 06/2014; 24(2). DOI:10.1063/1.4870363 · 1.76 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Many approaches for cancer immunotherapy have targeted dendritic cells (DCs), directly or indirectly, for the induction of antitumor immune responses. DC-based vaccines have been developed using a wide variety of ex vivo DC culture conditions, antigen (Ag) source and loading strategies, maturation agents, and routes of vaccination. Adjuvants are used to activate innate immune cells at the vaccine injection site, to promote Ag transport to the draining lymph nodes (LNs) and to model adaptive immune responses. Despite years of effort, the effective induction of strong and durable antitumor T-cell responses in vaccinated patients remains a challenge. The study of vaccine interactions with other immune cells in the LNs and, more recently, in the injection site has opened new doors for understanding antitumor effector T-cell licensing and function. In this review, we will briefly discuss the relevant sites and up-to-date facts regarding possible targets for antitumor vaccine refinement. We will focus on the processes taking place at the injection site, adjuvant combinations and their role in DC-based vaccines, LN homing, and modeling vaccine-induced immune responses capable of controlling tumor growth and generating immune memory.
    Frontiers in Immunology 03/2015; 6:91. DOI:10.3389/fimmu.2015.00091