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NPC Natural Product Communications
DR. PAWAN K AGRAWAL
Natural Product Inc.
7963, Anderson Park Lane,
Westerville, Ohio 43081, USA
PROFESSOR ALEJANDRO F. BARRERO
Department of Organic Chemistry,
University of Granada,
Campus de Fuente Nueva, s/n, 18071, Granada, Spain
PROFESSOR ALESSANDRA BRACA
Dipartimento di Chimica Bioorganicae Biofarmacia,
Universita di Pisa,
via Bonanno 33, 56126 Pisa, Italy
PROFESSOR DEAN GUO
State Key Laboratory of Natural and Biomimetic Drugs,
School of Pharmaceutical Sciences,
Beijing 100083, China
PROFESSOR YOSHIHIRO MIMAKI
School of Pharmacy,
Tokyo University of Pharmacy and Life Sciences,
Horinouchi 1432-1, Hachioji, Tokyo 192-0392, Japan
PROFESSOR STEPHEN G. PYNE
Department of Chemistry
University of Wollongong
Wollongong, New South Wales, 2522, Australia
PROFESSOR MANFRED G. REINECKE
Department of Chemistry,
Texas Christian University,
Forts Worth, TX 76129, USA
PROFESSOR WILLIAM N. SETZER
Department of Chemistry
The University of Alabama in Huntsville
Huntsville, AL 35809, USA
PROFESSOR YASUHIRO TEZUKA
Institute of Natural Medicine
Institute of Natural Medicine, University of Toyama,
2630-Sugitani, Toyama 930-0194, Japan
PROFESSOR DAVID E. THURSTON
Department of Pharmaceutical and Biological Chemistry,
The School of Pharmacy,
University of London, 29-39 Brunswick Square,
London WC1N 1AX, UK
Prof. Berhanu M. Abegaz
Prof. Viqar Uddin Ahmad
Prof. Øyvind M. Andersen
Prof. Giovanni Appendino
Prof. Yoshinori Asakawa
Prof. Lee Banting
Prof. Julie Banerji
Prof. Anna R. Bilia
Prof. Maurizio Bruno
Prof. César A. N. Catalán
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Prof. Geoffrey Cordell
Chicago, IL, USA
Prof. Ana Cristina Figueiredo
Prof. Cristina Gracia-Viguera
Prof. Duvvuru Gunasekar
Prof. Kurt Hostettmann
Prof. Martin A. Iglesias Arteaga
Mexico, D. F, Mexico
Prof. Leopold Jirovetz
Prof. Vladimir I Kalinin
Prof. Niel A. Koorbanally
Durban, South Africa
Prof. Karsten Krohn
Prof. Chiaki Kuroda
Prof. Hartmut Laatsch
Prof. Marie Lacaille-Dubois
Prof. Shoei-Sheng Lee
Prof. Francisco Macias
Prof. Imre Mathe
Prof. Ermino Murano
Prof. M. Soledade C. Pedras
Prof. Luc Pieters
Prof. Peter Proksch
Prof. Phila Raharivelomanana
Tahiti, French Polynesia
Prof. Luca Rastrelli
Prof. Monique Simmonds
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Prof. Valentin Stonik
Prof. Winston F. Tinto
Barbados, West Indies
Prof. Sylvia Urban
Prof. Karen Valant-Vetschera
PROFESSOR GERALD BLUNDEN
The School of Pharmacy & Biomedical Sciences,
University of Portsmouth,
Portsmouth, PO1 2DT U.K.
Determination of Bioactive Compounds in the Juice of Pummelo
(Citrus grandis Osbeck)
Marina Russoa, Ivana Bonaccorsia*, Germana Torrea, Antonella Cotroneoa, Paola Dugoa,b and
aDipartimento di Scienza del Farmaco e dei Prodotti per la Salute (SCIFAR), University of Messina,
viale Annunziata, 98168 – Messina, Italy
bUniversity Campus Bio-Medico, Via Álvaro del Portillo 21, 00128 - Rome, Italy
Received: October 30th, 2012; Accepted: December 18th, 2012
The juice of pummelo (Citrus grandis Osbeck) was analyzed to determine its composition of flavonoids, polymethoxyflavones, coumarins and psoralens. The
analyses were carried out by HPLC using columns packed with small diameter Fused-Core® C18 particles to achieve high resolution in short analysis time. In
addition, the profile of the native carotenoids present in the juice was determined using a C30 column. Identification of flavonoids was achieved by MS with
ESI in negative mode; the MS acquisition of oxygenated heterocyclic compounds was performed in positive APCI; carotenoids were detected with a PDA
detector. Nineteen native carotenoids were determined in pummelo juice for the first time. The composition of this juice is also discussed in comparison with
other Citrus juices, especially grapefruit.
Keywords: Carotenoids, Citrus grandis Osbeck, Flavonoids, Furocoumarins, HPLC, Pummelo juice.
Pummelo (Citrus grandis Osbeck) is a native fruit of East Asia .
Today the production of these fruits is principally in Thailand, south
China and Taiwan [2,3]. In Asian countries, pummelo fruits are
widely available and regularly consumed as either whole fruits or
fruit juice [4,5]. The composition of the peel essential oil has been
investigated in previous studies [6-11].
Most of the studies on pummelo fruits have been focused on the
antioxidant activity of compounds found in the juice, tissues, peel
and seeds [4,5,12-14]. Molecules responsible for the antioxidant
activity are flavonoids, coumarins, and carotenoids. Flavanones,
flavones and flavonols present in Citrus fruits have been shown to
be powerful antioxidants . Furthermore flavonoids exhibit
therapeutic beneficial effects [16,17]. Most of the oxygenated
heterocyclic compounds have been demonstrated to possess many
pharmacological and toxicological activities [18-21]. Some
coumarins possess antibacterial , antiplatelet aggregation, anti-
HIV , and intestinal anti-inflammatory  properties.
Carotenoids, apart from being responsible for the color of a wide
variety of foodstuffs, have many beneficial properties for human
health . These compounds have been implicated in the
prevention of, or protection against, serious human health disorders
such as cancer, heart and cardiovascular diseases, macular
degeneration, cataracts, osteoporosis and hypertension .
These bioactive molecules are non-volatile, thus the analytical
technique of choice for their determination in Citrus products is
high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) [16,17,27-33]. In this
work the non-volatile qualitative and quantitative profile of the juice
of pummelo is elucidated by means of reversed phase liquid
chromatography (RP-HPLC) using the new generation Fused-core®
C18 columns to take advantage of the high efficiency of these
particles, and the conventional C30 columns for their higher
selectivity towards apolar compounds. To the authors’ knowledge,
the composition of all these classes of compounds has never been
determined in the same juice simultaneously. Identification of all
the flavonoids and oxygenated heterocyclic compounds was carried
out by combining both UV-vis and MS data and comparing these
with available standards, while the identification of all the
carotenoids was performed by comparison of their UV spectra with
reference materials  in combination with their chromatographic
behavior. In Table 1 are reported the quantitative values of
flavonoids in the sample analyzed. Pummelo juice was
characterized by the presence of four flavanones: naringin,
neoeriocitrin, naringenin (melitidin) and acetylated naringin, and
one flavone: rhoifolin. Other authors also reported hesperidin,
neohesperidin, diosmin, vicenin-2, O-triglycosylnaringenin and
The most abundant flavonoid was naringin (137.7 mg/L), in
accordance with previously published reports [35-37]. However,
Girennavar et al.  reported a significantly higher concentration
of this compound than either Xu et al.  or Zhang et al. . The
qualitative and quantitative differences between our results and
those in the literature may be due to many factors, e.g. the cultivar,
the harvest time and/or the storage of the juice. In fact, Zhang et al.
 investigated the juice of four different cultivars (Guanximiyu,
Yuhuanyu, Cuixiangtianyu, Shatianyu) of pummelo, and found
differences either in the qualitative profile or in the quantitative
values. Naringin is one of the flavonoids responsible for the bitter
taste of Citrus juices. As in grapefruit [16,17], this compound is the
main flavonoid in pummelo juice.
Pummelo juice was characterized by the presence of one
polymethoxyflavone: nobiletin, four coumarins: meranzine hydrate,
epoxyaurapten, osthol and aurapten, and eleven furocoumarins:
oxypeucedanin hydrate, bergapten, byakangelicol, oxypeucedanin,
isoimperatorin, imperatorin, epoxybergamottin,
geranyloxypsoralen, bergamottin and one unknown psoralen. The
most abundant psoralen was epoxybergamottin (146.0 mg/L), and
the most abundant coumarin aurapten (6.3 mg/L). Other oxygenated
heterocyclic compounds present in pummelo juice were present in
concentrations lower than 10.6 mg/L.
NPC Natural Product Communications
171 - 174
172 Natural Product Communications Vol. 8 (2) 2013
Russo et al.
Table 1: Values of max, m/z and concentration in ppm (mg/L standard deviation) of
flavonoids and oxygenated heterocyclic compounds in pummelo juice.
Naringin (5,7,4’-trihydroxyflavanone 7-
Naringenin (melitidin) (5,7-
Meranzin hydrate (7-methoxy-8-(2’,3’-
Oxypeucedanin hydrate (5-(2’,3’-
*1: Flavavone; 2: Flavone; 3: Coumarin; 4:Psoralen
Girennavar et al.  and Uesawa et al.  reported on the
presence of bergamottin, bergaptol, epoxybergamottin hydrate and
paradisin A. Girennavar et al.  quantitatively determined
bergamottin (0.8 mg/L), epoxybergamottin hydrate (0.8 mg/L) and
paradisin A (0.08 mg/L). The amount of bergamottin reported is in
agreement with that determined in the present study. To explain the
differences from literature data, the same considerations raised for
the flavonoids profile can be made also for this class of compounds.
The juice of pummelo, hand-squeezed in the laboratory, was
characterized by almost the same profile of oxygenated heterocyclic
compounds detected previously in pummelo oil extracted in the
laboratory from the peel of the fruit by Mondello et al. . In the oil
were reported two coumarins, meranzin and isomeranzin, which
were not detected in the juice. However, oxypeucedanin hydrate,
byakangelicol, nobiletin, cnidicin, isoimperatorin, imperatorin,
bergamottin and 8-geranyloxypsoralen were found in the juice, but
were not reported by Mondello et al.  in the peel oil. These
differences may be due to the type of sample analyzed, the cultivar
of the fruit, and different instrumentation. In addition to pummelo,
grapefruit is the only other Citrus fruit that contains aurapten and
epoxyaurapten [29,30]. One more similarity between these two
Citrus fruits is the amount of epoxybergamottin [28,29], the most
abundant psoralen in pummelo juice and grapefruit.
In Table 2 is reported the qualitative profile of free carotenoids and
their esters determined in the sample analyzed. In total, 19
compounds were detected, including neoxanthin, violaxanthin,
antheraxanthin, zeaxanthin and mutatoxanthin, which were
identified as free xanthophylls. In addition, mono- and di-esters of
mutatoxanthin, violaxanthin, and -cryptoxanthin were detected.
Table 2: Values of max of free carotenoids and their esters in pummelo juice.
Compound CLASS Rt
(3S, 5R, 6R, 3’S, 5’R, 6’R)-5’,6’-Epoxy-
(3S, 5R, 6S, 3’S, 5’R, 6’S)-5,6,5’,6’-
(3S, 5R, 6S, 3’S, 5’R, 6’S)-5,6,5’,6’-
(3S, 5R, 6S, 3’S, 5’R, 6’S)-5,6,5’,6’-
unknown carotenoid 2
unknown carotenoid 3
These compounds were identified based on their UV-Vis spectra
and on the identification previously carried out on other Citrus fruits
Literature data on the composition of carotenoids in pummelo juice
is scant. Xu et al.  reported the concentration of -carotene in
pummelo juice detected by a colorimetric method. Wang et al. 
reported the quantitative composition of carotenoids determined in
an edible portion of a pummelo fruit (lutein, zeaxanthin, -carotene
and -cryptoxanthin) by means of RP-HPLC using a C18 stationary
phase. The qualitative composition here determined is not in
agreement with previous reports, probably due to the cultivar of the
fruits, to the extraction procedure, and to the different
instrumentation. In general, the results presented provide useful
information on the nutritional value of pummelo juice. The
qualitative and quantitative profiles of the different classes of
substances here investigated on the same sample can be used to
characterize this product, highlighting similarities and differences
with the closely related grapefruit juice.
Juice sample: This research was carried out on 500 mL of juice of
white pummelo (Citrus grandis Osbeck), obtained in the laboratory
from a fruit that weighed 1.6 Kg. The fruit, at a mature stage, was
harvested from a tree cultivated at a local farm in Messina province,
in December 2011.
1 15.11 217, 288
1 25.63 217, 284
2 29.14 223, 289 577, 269
31.87 222, 284 621
1 32.26 219, 284 725, 621
Bergapten (5-methoxypsoralen) 4 22.69
Unknown psoralen (8-monosubstituted)
4 26.68 251, 311 287
4 30.45 251, 312 271
4 31.54 250, 303 271
3 32.17 325 299
4 32.73 248, 304 253 -
3 33.26 266, 320 245
4 35.08 251, 312
251, 312 339, 275
Flavonoids and carotenoids in juice of pummelo (Citrus grandis Osbeck) Natural Product Communications Vol. 8 (2) 2013 173
Flavonoid analyses: For the analysis of flavonoids, the juice was
used without any pre-treatment. The hand-squeezed juice was
centrifuged and then filtered through an Acrodisc 0.45 m nylon
filter (Sigma-Aldrich; Milan, Italy). For the analysis of oxygenated
heterocyclic compounds, the juice sample was subjected to solvent
extraction prior to HPLC analysis. Ten mL of juice was extracted
with 3 successive aliquots of ethyl acetate (10 mL), using the
method reported by Dugo et al. . The extracts were dried with
anhydrous sodium sulfate, filtered through filter paper, and
evaporated to dryness in a rotary evaporator at 30°C. The extract
thus obtained was dissolved in 1 mL ethanol to which was added 50
L of coumarin (64.8 mg in 50 mL of ethanol) prior to HPLC
analysis. All the standards employed in this study were
commercially available and/or previously synthesized in our
Carotenoid analysis: For carotenoid analyses, 80 g of juice was
extracted 3 times with 90 mL of a mixture of methanol/ethyl
acetate/light petroleum (1:1:1), using the method reported by Dugo
et al. . The upper phase was gathered, dried with anhydrous
sodium sulfate, filtered through filter paper, and evaporated to
dryness using a rotary evaporator at 30°C after the addition of ca. 2
mg of BHT. The dry residue was then re-suspended in 3 mL of a
mixture of methanol/MTBE/ (1:1) and stored in darkness at – 18° C
Instrumentation: The HPLC analyses were carried out using a
Shimadzu HPLC system equipped with two LC 10 AD Vp pumps,
an SCL-10-Avp controller, a DGU-14A degasser, and a SPD-M10
Avp UV detector. For the analysis of compounds a Shimadzu LC-
MS-2020 was also used. The LC analyses of flavonoids were
carried out on an Ascentis Express C18 column, 5 cm x 4.6 mm i.d.
with a particle size of 2.7 m (Supelco, Bellefonte, PA). The
injection volume was 2 L. The mobile phase consisted of
water/formic acid (99.9:0.1) (solvent A) and water/acetonitrile/2-
propanol/formic acid (39.9:20:40:0.1 v/v) (solvent B); the linear
gradient profile was as follows: 0-3 min, 10% B; 3-33 min, 10-34%
B; 33-34 min, 34-100% B; 34-40 min, 100% B; 40 min, 100%.
Flow-rate was 0.8 mL/min, data were acquired using a photodiode
array detector in the range 190-370 nm and the chromatograms were
extracted at 283 and 325 nm. Time constant was 0.64 s and sample
frequency 1.5625 Hz. Since the pH of the Citrus juice is roughly
3.5-3.8, as previously determined , the mobile phases were
adjusted to pH 3 with formic acid in order to suppress the ionization
of the phenolic groups. Separation of coumarins was carried out on
an Ascentis Express C18 column, 150 x 4.6 mm i.d., with a particle
size of 2.7 m (Supelco, Bellefonte, PA). The injection volume was
2 L. The mobile phase consisted of water/methanol/THF (85:10:5)
(solvent A) and methanol/THF (95:5) (solvent B); the linear
gradient profile was as follows: 0-5 min, 0% B; 5-25 min, 0-40% B;
25-45 min, 40-90% B; 45-55 min, 90% B. Flow-rate was 1.0
mL/min; data were acquired using a photodiode array detector in the
range 190-370 nm and the chromatograms were extracted at 315
nm. Time constant was 0.64 s and sample frequency 1.5625 Hz.
Data acquisition was performed by Shimadzu LCsolution software
Separation of carotenoids: Separation of carotenoids was
performed on a YMC C30 column (250 x 4.6 mm - 5μm); the
mobile phases consisted of methanol/MTBE/water (83:15:2,v/v/v;
eluent A) and methanol/MTBE/water, (8:90:2, v/v/v; eluent B),
using a gradient program as follows: 0 min 0% B; 0-20 min 30%B;
20-35 min 80% B; 35-75 min 95% B; 75-80 min 100% B; 80-85
min 100% B. The flow rate was 0.8 mL/min and the injection
volume 20 μL. The UV-Vis spectra were acquired in the range of
250-600 nm, while the chromatograms were extracted at 450 nm
(sampling frequency: 1,5625 Hz; time constant: 0.64 s). Data
acquisition was performed by Shimadzu LCsolution software
Mass spectrometry: The MS acquisition of flavonoids was
performed using ESI, in negative mode, under the following
conditions: mass spectral range 200-700 m/z; interval 0.5 sec; scan
speed: 938 amu/s; nebulizing gas (N2) flow: 1.5 mL/min; ESI
temperature 350°C: Heat block: 300°C; Desolvation line
temperature: 300°C; DL voltage -34 V; probe voltage: +4.5 kV;
Qarray voltage: 1.0 V, RF voltage: 90 V; detection gain 1.05 kV.
The MS acquisition of oxygenated heterocyclic compounds was
performed using APCI, in positive mode, under the following
conditions: mass spectral range 150-500 m/z; interval. 0.5 sec; scan
speed: 938 amu/s; nebulizing gas (N2) flow: 4 mL/min; APCI
temperature 350°C: Heat block: 200°C; Desolvation line
temperature: 250°C; DL voltage -34 V; probe voltage: +4.5 kV;
Qarray voltage: 90 V, RF voltage: 90 V; detection gain 1.05 kV. To
quantify the content of flavonoids present in pummelo juice, a
calibration curve was constructed by using naringin as a reference
material. Five different concentrations of naringin (0.1-100 mg/L
concentration range) were prepared by diluting a stock solution of
about 1000 mg/L, using methanol as solvent, and analyzed 5 times
by HPLC under the same chromatographic conditions optimized for
the juice sample. Limit of detection (LOD) and limit of
quantification (LOQ) values, following the EURACHEM guidelines
, were also calculated using the method reported by Russo et al.
. A calibration curve of naringin was taken into account for the
determination of the flavanone-O-glycosides content in the juice.
Correction factors were then calculated using the formula reported
by Russo et al. ; limit of detection (LOD) and limit of
quantification (LOQ) values, following the EURACHEM guidelines
, were also calculated.
Acknowledgments - The project was funded by the “Italian
Ministry for the University and Research (MIUR)” within the
National Operative Project “Hi-Life Health Products from the
Industry of Foods”. Project ID: PON01_01499.
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Natural Product Communications Vol. 8 (2) 2013
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Essential Oil of Flowers of Anaphalis contorta, an Aromatic and Medicinal Plant from India
Rajesh K. Joshi
Composition of Essential Oils from Seeds of Abies koreana
Anna Wajs-Bonikowska, Karol Olejnik, Radosław Bonikowski and Piotr Banaszczak
Chemical Composition of Hypericum richeri subsp. grisebachii Essential Oil from Croatia
Igor Jerković, Maja Marasović, Zvonimir Marijanović, Kroata Hazler Pilepić, Željan Maleš and Mladen Miloš
Chemical Composition of the Essential Oils from Two Vietnamese Asarum Species: A. glabrum and A. cordifolium
Tran Huy Thai, Ophélie Bazzali, Tran Minh Hoi, Nguyen Anh Tuan, Félix Tomi, Joseph Casanova and Ange Bighelli
Essential Oils from Five Species of Annonaceae from Vietnam
Tran D. Thang, Do N. Dai, Tran M. Hoi and Isiaka A. Ogunwande
Essential Oils from the Leaves of Six Medicinal Plants of Nigeria
Isiaka A. Ogunwande, Nudewhenu O. Avoseh, Guido Flamini, Alimot-Sadiat O. Hassan, AbdulRazaq O. Ogunmoye,
Akindele O. Ogunsanwo, Kamorudeen O. Yusuf, Atuonwu O. Kelechi, Zainab A. Tiamiyu and Godgift O. Tabowei
Comparative Study on In Vitro Activities of Citral, Limonene and Essential Oils from Lippia citriodora and L. alba on
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Luz Angela Gómez, Elena Stashenko and Raquel Elvira Ocazionez
TLC-Bioautographic Evaluation of In Vitro Anti-tyrosinase and Anti-cholinesterase Potentials of Sandalwood Oil
Biswapriya B. Misra and Satyahari Dey
Composition, Mosquito Larvicidal, Biting Deterrent and Antifungal Activity of Essential Oils of Different Plant Parts of
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Abbas Ali, Nurhayat Tabanca, Betul Demirci, K. Husnu Can Baser, Jane Ellis, Sandra Gray, Brett R. Lackey, Christine Murphy,
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Md. Irshad, Aijaz Ahmad, Md. Zafaryab, Farah Ahmad, Nikhat Manzoor, Man Singh and M. Moshahid A. Rizvi
Chemical Composition and Biological Activity of the Essential Oil of Amomum biflorum
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Chemical Composition and Antibacterial Activity of Essential Oils from Myrcia alagoensis (Myrtaceae)
Aline do N. Silva, Ana Paula T. Uetanabaro and Angélica M. Lucchese
Composition, in-vitro Anticancer, and Antimicrobial Activities of the Leaf Essential Oil of Machilus mushaensis from Taiwan
Yu-Chang Su, and Chen-Lung Ho
Chemical Constituents and Cytotoxic Evaluation of Essential Oils from Leaves of Porcelia macrocarpa (Annonaceae)
Erica Biolcati P. da Silva, Alisson L. Matsuo, Carlos R. Figueiredo, Mariana H. Chaves, Patricia Sartorelli and João Henrique G. Lago
Medicinal Plants of China, Korea, and Japan: Bioresources for Tomorrow’s Drugs and Cosmetics by Chritophe Wiart, PharmD, PhD
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Volume 8, Number 2
Drimendiol, A Drimane Sesquiterpene with Quorum Sensing Inhibition Activity
Cristian Paz, Gerardo Cárcamo, Mario Silva, José Becerra, Homero Urrutia and Katherine Sossa
Microbial Transformation of Curcumol by Aspergillus niger
Chen Li-Xia, Zhang Hui, Zhao Qian, Yin Shi-Yu, Zhang Zhong, Li Tian-Xian and Qiu Feng
Chemopreventive Effect of Sarcophine-diol on NOR-1-Induced TPA-Promoted Skin Carcinogenesis in Female HOS:HR-1 Mice
Pawel T. Szymanski, Safwat A. Ahmed, Sherief Khalifa, Harukuni Tokuda, Eiichiro Ichiishi, Akira Iida, Nobutaka Suzuki and
Carmichaeline A: A New C20-diterpenoid Alkaloid from Aconitum carmichaeli
Shu-hua Li, Jun-ruXiong, Yuan-qin Zhang, Qing-xiang Xiang and Feng-zheng Chen
Steroidal Saponins from Dracaena marginata
Abdelmalek Rezgui, Anne-Claire Mitaine-Offer, David Pertuit, Tomofumi Miyamoto, Chiaki Tanaka, Stéphanie Delemasure,
Patrick Dutartre and Marie-Aleth Lacaille-Dubois
Zephgrabetaine: A New Betaine-type Amaryllidaceae Alkaloid from Zephyranthes grandiflora
Deepali Katoch, Dharmesh Kumar, Upendra Sharma, Neeraj Kumar, Yogendra S. Padwad, Brij Lal and Bikram Singh
Antioxidant and Anti-inflammatory Compounds in the Popular Landscape Plant Berberis thunbergii var. atropurpurea
Chuan-Rui Zhang, Robert E. Schutzki and Muraleedharan G. Nair
Two New Amides from Streptomyces michiganensis
Jinghua Xue, Liangxiong Xu, Zi-Hua Jiang and Xiaoyi Wei
Determination of Bioactive Compounds in the Juice of Pummelo (Citrus grandis Osbeck)
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Antiplasmodial Activity of Compounds from the Surface Exudates of Senecio roseiflorus
Leonidah Omosa Kerubo, Jacob Ogweno Midiwo, Solomon Derese, Moses K. Langat, Hosea M. Akala, Norman C. Waters,
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Anti-inflammatory, Antioxidant and Cytotoxicity Activities of Methanolic Extract and Prenylated Flavanones Isolated from
Leaves of Eysehardtia platycarpa
Valeri Domínguez-Villegas, Vanessa Domínguez-Villegas, María Luisa García, Ana Calpena, Beatriz Clares-Naveros and
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Phenolic Glycosides from Lindera obtusiloba and their Anti-allergic Inflammatory Activities
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Antiproliferative Effects of an Analog of Curcumin in Hep-2 cells: A Comparative Study with Curcumin
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Determination of Organic Acids in Salicornia herbacea by Solid-phase Extraction Combined with Liquid Chromatography
Dandan Han, Minglei Tian, Dong Wha Park and Kyung Ho Row
Hypoglycemic Effect of Bumelia sartorum Polyphenolic Rich Extracts
Halliny S. Ruela, Katia C. C. Sabino, Ivana C. R. Leal, Ana M. Landeira-Fernandez, Michelle R. A. de Almeida,
Talita S. M. Rocha and Ricardo M. Kuster
Protoanemonin Content Variation between Clematis spp.: Leaf, Stem and Root
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Methanolic Extract of Nigella sativa Seed Inhibits SiHa Human Cervical Cancer Cell Proliferation Through Apoptosis
Tarique N. Hasan, Gowhar Shafi, Naveed A Syed, Muhammad A Alfawaz, Mohammed A. Alsaif, Anjana Munshi, Kai Y. Lei and
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