Emergency department reported head injuries from skiing and snowboarding among children and adolescents, 1996-2010

Harborview Injury Prevention and Research Center (HIPRC), University of Washington, , Seattle, Washington, USA.
Injury Prevention (Impact Factor: 1.89). 03/2013; 19(6). DOI: 10.1136/injuryprev-2012-040727
Source: PubMed


To evaluate the incidence of snow-sports-related head injuries among children and adolescents reported to emergency departments (EDs), and to examine the trend from 1996 to 2010 in ED visits for snow-sports-related traumatic brain injury (TBI) among children and adolescents.

A retrospective, population-based cohort study was conducted using data from the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System for patients (aged ≤17 years) treated in EDs in the USA from 1996 to 2010, for TBIs associated with snow sports (defined as skiing or snowboarding). National estimates of snow sports participation were obtained from the National Ski Area Association and utilised to calculate incidence rates. Analyses were conducted separately for children (aged 4-12 years) and adolescents (aged 13-17 years).

An estimated number of 78 538 (95% CI 66 350 to 90 727) snow sports-related head injuries among children and adolescents were treated in EDs during the 14-year study period. Among these, 77.2% were TBIs (intracranial injury, concussion or fracture). The annual average incidence rate of TBI was 2.24 per 10 000 resort visits for children compared with 3.13 per 10 000 visits for adolescents. The incidence of TBI increased from 1996 to 2010 among adolescents (p<0.003).

Given the increasing incidence of TBI among adolescents and the increased recognition of the importance of concussions, greater awareness efforts may be needed to ensure safety, especially helmet use, as youth engage in snow sports.

14 Reads
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background: Since their conception during the mid-1970s, international participation in extreme sports has grown rapidly. The recent death of extreme snowmobiler Caleb Moore at the 2013 Winter X Games has demonstrated the serious risks associated with these sports. Purpose: To examine the incidence and prevalence of head and neck injuries (HNIs) in extreme sports. Study design: Descriptive epidemiological study. Methods: The National Electronic Injury Surveillance System (NEISS) was used to acquire data from 7 sports (2000-2011) that were included in the Winter and Summer X Games. Data from the NEISS database were collected for each individual sport per year and type of HNI. Cumulative data for overall incidence and injuries over the entire 11-year period were calculated. National estimates were determined using NEISS-weighted calculations. Incidence rates were calculated for extreme sports using data from Outdoor Foundation Participation Reports. Results: Over 4 million injuries were reported between 2000 and 2011, of which 11.3% were HNIs. Of all HNIs, 83% were head injuries and 17% neck injuries. The 4 sports with the highest total incidence of HNI were skateboarding (129,600), snowboarding (97,527), skiing (83,313), and motocross (78,236). Severe HNI (cervical or skull fracture) accounted for 2.5% of extreme sports HNIs. Of these, skateboarding had the highest percentage of severe HNIs. Conclusion: The number of serious injuries suffered in extreme sports has increased as participation in the sports continues to grow. A greater awareness of the dangers associated with these sports offers an opportunity for sports medicine and orthopaedic physicians to advocate for safer equipment, improved on-site medical care, and further research regarding extreme sports injuries.
    01/2015; 3(1). DOI:10.1177/2325967114564358
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: There are limited data regarding concussion among youth skiers and snowboarders. The objective of this study was to examine the frequency of concussion among helmeted and unhelmeted youth skiers and snowboarders presenting to trauma centers. Subjects 18 years or younger with a ski- or snowboard-related injury were studied using data from the National Trauma Data Bank from 2009 to 2010. We further selected those with head/neck injuries and stratified based on helmet status. Concussive injuries were identified from International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision codes. Severity analysis was based on the Glasgow Coma Scale and Injury Severity Score. A total of 1001 subjects met inclusion criteria with 678 subjects having documented helmet status. Subjects 12 years or younger were more likely to use helmets compared to 13-18 year-olds (odds ratio, 2.21; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 1.52-3.21). Skiers were more likely to use helmets compared to snowboarders (odds ratios, 1.60; 95% CI, 1.16-2.19). Snowboarders had a greater likelihood of concussion (estimated-β, 2.1; 95% CI, 1.48-2.85) after adjusting for helmet status and age. There was no significant difference in the frequency of concussion among helmeted compared to unhelmeted subjects. Imputing missing values for helmets status had no effect on outcome for concussion. We found no difference in injury severity among helmeted compared to unhelmeted subjects. Among youth skiers and snowboarders who present to trauma centers with a head injury, the likelihood of that injury involving a concussion was not associated with helmet use.
    Pediatric emergency care 04/2015; DOI:10.1097/PEC.0000000000000364 · 1.05 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Childhood sports-related head trauma is common, frequently leading to emergency department (ED) visits. We describe the spectrum of these injuries and trends in computed tomography (CT) use in the Pediatric Emergency Care Applied Research Network. This was a secondary analysis of a large prospective cohort of children with head trauma in 25 Pediatric Emergency Care Applied Research Network EDs between 2004 and 2006. We described and compared children 5 to 18 years old by CT rate, traumatic brain injury (TBI) on CT, and clinically important TBI (ciTBI). We used multi-variable logistic regression to compare CT rates, adjusting for clinical severity. Outcomes included frequency of CT, TBIs on CT, and ciTBIs (defined by [a] death, [b] neurosurgery, [c] intubation >24 hours, or [d] hospitalization for ≥2 nights). A total of 3289 (14%) of 23082 children had sports-related head trauma. Two percent had Glasgow Coma Scale scores less than 14. 53% received ED CTs, 4% had TBIs on CT, and 1% had ciTBIs. Equestrians had increased adjusted odds (1.8; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.0-3.0]) of CTs; the rate of TBI on CT was 4% (95% CI, 3%-5%). Compared with team sports, snow (adjusted odds ratio, 4.1; 95% CI 1.5-11.4) and nonmotorized wheeled (adjusted odds ratio, 12.8; 95% CI, 5.5-32.4) sports had increased adjusted odds of ciTBIs. Children with sports-related head trauma commonly undergo CT. Only 4% of those imaged had TBIs on CT. Clinically important TBIs occurred in 1%, with significant variation by sport. There is an opportunity for injury prevention efforts in high-risk sports and opportunities to reduce CT use in general by use of evidence-based prediction rules. What is known about this subject: Pediatric sports-related head injuries are a common and increasingly frequent ED presentation, as is the use of CT in their evaluation. Little is known about TBIs resulting from different types of sports activities in children. What this study adds to existing knowledge: This study broadens the understanding of the epidemiology of Pediatric TBIs resulting from different sports activities through a prospective assessment of frequency and severity of ciTBIs and ED CT use in a large cohort of head-injured children in a network of pediatric EDs. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.
    The American journal of emergency medicine 07/2015; 33(10). DOI:10.1016/j.ajem.2015.06.069 · 1.27 Impact Factor