To evaluate the incidence of snow-sports-related head injuries among children and adolescents reported to emergency departments (EDs), and to examine the trend from 1996 to 2010 in ED visits for snow-sports-related traumatic brain injury (TBI) among children and adolescents.
A retrospective, population-based cohort study was conducted using data from the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System for patients (aged ≤17 years) treated in EDs in the USA from 1996 to 2010, for TBIs associated with snow sports (defined as skiing or snowboarding). National estimates of snow sports participation were obtained from the National Ski Area Association and utilised to calculate incidence rates. Analyses were conducted separately for children (aged 4-12 years) and adolescents (aged 13-17 years).
An estimated number of 78 538 (95% CI 66 350 to 90 727) snow sports-related head injuries among children and adolescents were treated in EDs during the 14-year study period. Among these, 77.2% were TBIs (intracranial injury, concussion or fracture). The annual average incidence rate of TBI was 2.24 per 10 000 resort visits for children compared with 3.13 per 10 000 visits for adolescents. The incidence of TBI increased from 1996 to 2010 among adolescents (p<0.003).
Given the increasing incidence of TBI among adolescents and the increased recognition of the importance of concussions, greater awareness efforts may be needed to ensure safety, especially helmet use, as youth engage in snow sports.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: Since their conception during the mid-1970s, international participation in extreme sports has grown rapidly. The recent death of extreme snowmobiler Caleb Moore at the 2013 Winter X Games has demonstrated the serious risks associated with these sports.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: There are limited data regarding concussion among youth skiers and snowboarders. The objective of this study was to examine the frequency of concussion among helmeted and unhelmeted youth skiers and snowboarders presenting to trauma centers.
Subjects 18 years or younger with a ski- or snowboard-related injury were studied using data from the National Trauma Data Bank from 2009 to 2010. We further selected those with head/neck injuries and stratified based on helmet status. Concussive injuries were identified from International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision codes. Severity analysis was based on the Glasgow Coma Scale and Injury Severity Score.
A total of 1001 subjects met inclusion criteria with 678 subjects having documented helmet status. Subjects 12 years or younger were more likely to use helmets compared to 13-18 year-olds (odds ratio, 2.21; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 1.52-3.21). Skiers were more likely to use helmets compared to snowboarders (odds ratios, 1.60; 95% CI, 1.16-2.19). Snowboarders had a greater likelihood of concussion (estimated-β, 2.1; 95% CI, 1.48-2.85) after adjusting for helmet status and age. There was no significant difference in the frequency of concussion among helmeted compared to unhelmeted subjects. Imputing missing values for helmets status had no effect on outcome for concussion. We found no difference in injury severity among helmeted compared to unhelmeted subjects.
Among youth skiers and snowboarders who present to trauma centers with a head injury, the likelihood of that injury involving a concussion was not associated with helmet use.
Pediatric emergency care 04/2015; DOI:10.1097/PEC.0000000000000364 · 1.05 Impact Factor
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