Sleep disturbances are core symptoms of posttraumatic-stress disorder (PTSD), yet they bear less stigma than other PTSD symptoms. Given the growing number of returning military veterans, brief, valid assessments that identify PTSD in a minimally stigmatizing way may be useful in research and clinical practice. The study purpose was to evaluate the psychometric properties of the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index Addendum for PTSD (PSQI-A), and to examine its ability to identify PTSD cases among U.S. male military veterans. Male military veterans (N = 119) completed the PSQI-A, as well as measures of sleep quality, combat exposure, posttraumatic stress, depression, and anxiety. Veterans with PTSD had higher PSQI-A identified disruptive nocturnal behaviors than veterans without PTSD. The PSQI-A had good internal consistency and convergent validity with sleep quality, combat exposure, PTSD symptoms, depression, and anxiety. A cutoff score ≥ 4 provided an area under the curve = .81, with 71% sensitivity, 82% specificity, and 60% positive and 83% negative predictive value for a clinical diagnosis of PTSD; correct classification was 74%. The PSQI-A is a valid measure to possibly detect PTSD among male military veterans. Assessment of disruptive nocturnal behaviors may provide a cost-effective, nonstigmatizing approach to PTSD screening without directly probing for trauma exposure(s).
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective:
In a previous polysomnographic cross-sectional study we found a significant relationship between sleep disorders and multiple sclerosis (MS) related fatigue. The purpose of this open follow-up observation was to compare the impact of treatment of sleep disorders on MS related fatigue measured with the Modified Fatigue Impact Scale (MFIS).
Non-randomized follow-up observation: treated versus untreated patients, subgroups according to compliance with sleep medical treatment recommendations (univariate, multivariate analysis, multiple logistic regression). 66 MS patients were followed after polysomnography, 49 patients with relevant sleep disorders and 17 without.
Mean MFIS scores decreased from 41.2 to 26.2 (p=0.025) in patients with good compliance (GC; n=18), from 42.4 to 32.1 (p=0.12) in patients with moderate compliance (MC; n=12), and from 41.6 to 35.5 (p=0.17) in non-compliant patients (NC; n=17). Mean MFIS values increased in patients without sleep disorders from 22.9 to 25.4 (NSD; n=12, p=0.56). In multiple logistic regression, treatment of sleep disorders predicted decrease of MFIS-values (GC versus NSD odds ratio 13.4; p=0.015; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.7-107.2, MC versus NSD odds ratio 13.8; p=0.028; 95% CI 1.3-143.3).
Sleep medical treatment may improve MS related fatigue when patients adhere to treatment recommendations.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Evening chronotypes exhibit increased rates of affective dyregulation and sleep disturbances (e.g., insomnia and nightmares). Such symptoms are common to military veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD); however, the influence of chronotype on this population remains unknown. We examined behavioral, psychological, and neural correlates of chronotype in 36 combat-exposed military veterans with varying degrees of posttraumatic stress symptomatology. We employed FDG-PET to assess neural activity across wakefulness and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. We used polysomnography and diaries to monitor sleep, and a self-report survey to measure chronotype. Eveningness was associated with greater lifetime PTSD symptoms, more disturbed sleep, and more frequent and intense nightmares. Eveningness was also associated with greater brain activity in posterior cingulate/precuneus and brainstem regions across wakefulness and REM sleep, overlapping with regions related to arousal and REM sleep generation. Chronotype may be an important correlate of neural activity in REM sleep-generating and/or arousal regulatory regions among combat-exposed veterans with PTSD symptoms. Further investigations of the role of chronotype in PTSD are warranted.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Sleep disturbances are one of the main complaints of patients with trauma-related disorders. The original Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index Addendum for PTSD (PSQI-A) is self-report instrument developed to evaluate posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD)-specific sleep disturbances in trauma-exposed individuals. However, to date, the PSQI-A has not yet been translated nor validated in French.
THE PRESENT STUDY AIMS TO: a) translate the PSQI-A into French, and b) examine its psychometric properties.
Seventy-three adult patients (mean age=40.3 [SD=15.0], 75% females) evaluated in a specialized psychotraumatology unit completed the French versions of the PSQI-A, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), and Impact Event Scale-Revised (IES-R).
The French version of the PSQI-A showed satisfactory internal consistency, inter-item correlations, item correlations with the total score, convergent validity with PTSD and anxiety measures, and divergent validity with a depression measure.
Our findings support the use of the French version of the PSQI-A for both clinical care and research. The French version of the PSQI-A is an important addition to the currently available instruments that can be used to examine trauma-related sleep disturbances among French-speaking individuals.
European Journal of Psychotraumatology 09/2013; 4. DOI:10.3402/ejpt.v4i0.19298 · 2.40 Impact Factor
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