Structure-based ligand discovery for the Large-neutral Amino Acid Transporter 1, LAT-1.

Departments of Bioengineering and Therapeutic Sciences and Pharmaceutical Chemistry, California Institute for Quantitative Biosciences, and Graduate Group in Biophysics, University of California, San Francisco, CA 94158.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (Impact Factor: 9.81). 03/2013; DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1218165110
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The Large-neutral Amino Acid Transporter 1 (LAT-1)-a sodium-independent exchanger of amino acids, thyroid hormones, and prescription drugs-is highly expressed in the blood-brain barrier and various types of cancer. LAT-1 plays an important role in cancer development as well as in mediating drug and nutrient delivery across the blood-brain barrier, making it a key drug target. Here, we identify four LAT-1 ligands, including one chemically novel substrate, by comparative modeling, virtual screening, and experimental validation. These results may rationalize the enhanced brain permeability of two drugs, including the anticancer agent acivicin. Finally, two of our hits inhibited proliferation of a cancer cell line by distinct mechanisms, providing useful chemical tools to characterize the role of LAT-1 in cancer metabolism.

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    ABSTRACT: Thyroid hormone (TH) transport into the brain is not only pivotal for development and differentiation, but also for maintenance and regulation of adult central nervous system (CNS) function. In this review, we highlight some key factors and structures regulating TH uptake and distribution. Serum TH binding proteins play a major role for the availability of TH since only free hormone concentrations may dictate cellular uptake. One of these proteins, transthyretin is also present in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) after being secreted by the choroid plexus. Entry routes into the brain like the blood-brain-barrier (BBB) and the blood-CSF-barrier will be explicated regarding fetal and adult status. Recently identified TH transmembrane transporters (THTT) like monocarboxylate transporter 8 (Mct8) play a major role in uptake of TH across the BBB but as well in transport between cells like astrocytes and neurons within the brain. Species differences in transporter expression will be presented and interference of TH transport by endogenous and exogenous compounds including endocrine disruptors and drugs will be discussed.
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