* Senior Biostatistician, Department of Quantitative Health Sciences and Department of Outcomes Research, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio, and Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio. † Professor, Department of Anesthesiology and Community and Preventive Medicine, University of Rochester School of Medicine, Rochester, New York. ‡ Associate Staff, Department of Quantitative Health Sciences and Department of Outcomes Research, Cleveland Clinic. § Assistant Staff, Department of Quantitative Health Sciences, Cleveland Clinic. ‖ Adjunct Staff, Department of Outcomes Research, Cleveland Clinic. # Michael Cudahy Professor and Chair, Department of Outcomes Research, Cleveland Clinic.
Benchmarking performance across hospitals requires proper adjustment for differences in baseline patient and procedural risk. Recently, a Risk Stratification Index was developed from Medicare data, which used all diagnosis and procedure codes associated with each stay, but did not distinguish present-on-admission (POA) diagnoses from hospital-acquired diagnoses. We sought to (1) develop and validate a risk index for in-hospital mortality using only POA diagnoses, principal procedures, and secondary procedures occurring before the date of the principal procedure (POARisk) and (2) compare hospital performance metrics obtained using the POARisk model with those obtained using a similarly derived model which ignored the timing of diagnoses and procedures (AllCodeRisk).
We used the 2004-2009 California State Inpatient Database to develop, calibrate, and prospectively test our models (n = 24 million). Elastic net logistic regression was used to estimate the two risk indices. Agreement in hospital performance under the two respective risk models was assessed by comparing observed-to-expected mortality ratios; acceptable agreement was predefined as the AllCodeRisk-based observed-to-expected ratio within ± 20% of the POARisk-based observed-to-expected ratio for more than 95% of hospitals.
After recalibration, goodness of fit (i.e., model calibration) within the 2009 data was excellent for both models. C-statistics were 0.958 and 0.981, respectively, for the POARisk and AllCodeRisk models. The AllCodeRisk-based observed-to-expected ratio was within ± 20% of the POARisk-based observed-to-expected ratio for 89% of hospitals, which was slightly lower than the predefined limit of agreement.
Consideration of POA coding meaningfully improved hospital performance measurement. The POARisk model should be used for risk adjustment when POA data are available.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Administrative data are commonly used to evaluate total joint arthroplasty, but analyses have historically been limited by the inability to capture which conditions were present-on-admission (POA). In 2007 Medicare began allowing hospitals to submit POA information. We used Medicare Part A data from 2008 to 2009 to examine POA coding for three common complications (pulmonary embolism [PE], hemorrhage/hematoma, and infection) for primary and revision total knee arthroplasty (TKA). POA information was complete for 60%-75% of complications. There was no evidence that higher TKA volume hospitals or major teaching hospitals were more likely to accurately code POA data. The percentage of complications coded as POA ranged from 6.4% (PE during index admission for primary TKA) to 68.8% (infection during index admission for revision TKA). Early experience suggests that POA coding can significantly enhance the value of Medicare data for evaluating TKA outcomes.
The Journal of arthroplasty 11/2013; 29(5). DOI:10.1016/j.arth.2013.11.002 · 2.67 Impact Factor
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