Effects of (56)Fe radiation on hippocampal function in mice deficient in chemokine receptor 2 (CCR2).
ABSTRACT (56)Fe irradiation affects hippocampus-dependent cognition. The underlying mechanisms may involve alterations in neurogenesis, expression of the plasticity-related immediate early gene Arc, and inflammation. Chemokine receptor-2 (CCR2), which mediates the recruitment of infiltrating and resident microglia to sites of CNS inflammation, is upregulated by (56)Fe irradiation. CCR2 KO and wild-type mice were used to compare effects of (56)Fe radiation (600 MeV, 0.25Gy) on hippocampal function using contextual fear conditioning involving tone shock pairing during training (+/+) and exposure to the same environment without tone shock pairings (-/-). In the -/- condition, irradiation enhanced habituation in WT mice, but not CCR2 KO mice, suggesting that a lack of CCR2 was associated with reduced cognitive performance. In the++ condition, irradiation reduced freezing but there was no genotype differences. There were no significant correlations between the number of Arc-positive cells in the dentate gyrus and freezing in either genotype. While measures of neurogenesis and gliogenesis appeared to be modulated by CCR2, there were no effects of genotype on the total numbers of newly born activated microglia before or after irradiation, indicating that other mechanisms are involved in the genotype-dependent radiation response.
- SourceAvailable from: Diego Gomez-Nicola[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The expansion of the microglial population is one of the hallmarks of numerous brain disorders. The addition of circulating progenitors to the pool of brain macrophages can contribute to the progression of brain disease and needs to be precisely defined to better understand the evolution of the glial and inflammatory reactions in the brain. We have analyzed the degree of infiltration/recruitment of circulating monocytes to the microglial pool, in a prion disease model of chronic neurodegeneration. Our results indicate a minimal/absent level of CCR2-dependent recruitment of circulating monocytes, local proliferation of microglia is the main driving force maintaining the amplification of the population. A deficiency in CCR2, and thus the absence of recruitment of circulating monocytes, does not impact microglial dynamics, the inflammatory profile or the temporal behavioral course of prion disease. However, the lack of CCR2 has unexpected effects including the failure to recruit perivascular macrophages in diseased but not healthy CNS and a small reduction in microglia proliferation. These data define the composition of the CNS-resident macrophage populations in prion disease and will help to understand the dynamics of the CNS innate immune response during chronic neurodegeneration. GLIA 2014Glia 07/2014; 62(7). DOI:10.1002/glia.22660 · 6.03 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: One long standing aspect of microglia biology was never questioned; their involvement in brain disease. Based on morphological changes (retracted processes and amoeboid shape) that inevitably occur in these cells in case of damage in the central nervous system, microglia in the diseased brain were called "activated." Because "activated" microglia were always found in direct neighborhood to dead or dying neuron, and since it is known now for more than 20 years that cultured microglia release numerous factors that are able to kill neurons, microglia "activation" was often seen as a neurotoxic process. From an evolutionary point of view, however, it is difficult to understand why an important, mostly post-mitotic and highly vulnerable organ like the brain would host numerous potential killers. This review is aimed to critically reconsider the term microglia neurotoxicity and to discuss experimental problems around microglia biology, that often have led to the conclusion that microglia are neurotoxic cells.Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience 05/2013; 7:71. DOI:10.3389/fncel.2013.00071 · 4.18 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Abstract Purpose: To investigate the effects of cranial irradiation on the neurovascular niche in the young brain. Disruption of this niche has previously been observed in the adult rat brain after irradiation. Materials and methods: We subjected postnatal day 14 (P14) mice to a single dose of 8 Gy whole brain irradiation and measured the distance between microvessels and either neural progenitor cells (doublecortin-positive, DCX(+)) or proliferating cells (Ki-67(+)) in the dorsal hippocampal subgranular zone (SGZ) 6 hours, 1 week and 7 weeks post-irradiation. In addition, pericyte coverage of microvessels in the SGZ was measured. Results: DCX(+) and Ki-67(+) cells were located closer to microvessels in the adult brain compared to young, still growing brains, constituting new information on normal development. We found an increased distance between microvessels and DCX(+) cells 6 hours post-irradiation and between microvessels and Ki-67(+) cells 1 week post-irradiation. Furthermore, pericyte coverage was transiently decreased by 17 % 6 hours post-irradiation. Conclusions: The hippocampal neurovascular niche in the young, growing brain is transiently disrupted by irradiation. It remains to be elucidated what role these transient changes play in the apparently permanent ablation of hippocampal neurogenesis previously demonstrated in the same model.International Journal of Radiation Biology 06/2014; DOI:10.3109/09553002.2014.931612 · 1.84 Impact Factor