MRI findings and sleep apnea in children with Chiari I malformation.
ABSTRACT Chiari I malformation is characterized by downward herniation of the cerebellar tonsils through the foramen magnum. Scant data are available on the clinical course, relationship to the extent of herniation on magnetic resonance imaging in Chiari I malformation and the presence of sleep-disordered breathing on polysomnography. Retrospective analysis was performed looking at polysomnographic findings of children diagnosed with Chiari I malformation. Details on how Chiari I malformation was diagnosed, brainstem magnetic resonance imaging findings, and indications for obtaining the polysomnogram in these patients were reviewed. We also reviewed available data on children who had decompression surgery followed by postoperative polysomnography findings. Twenty-two children were identified in our study (11 males, median age 10 years, range 1 to 18). Three had central sleep apnea, five had obstructive sleep apnea, and one had both obstructive and central sleep apnea. Children with sleep-disordered breathing had excessive crowding of the brainstem structures at the foramen magnum and were more likely to have a greater length of herniation compared with those children without sleep-disordered breathing (P = 0.046). Patients with central sleep apneas received surgical decompression, and their conditions were significantly improved on follow-up polysomnography. These data suggest that imaging parameters may correlate with the presence of sleep-disordered breathing in children with Chiari I malformation.
Pediatric Neurology 05/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.pediatrneurol.2014.01.033 · 1.50 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The prevalence of obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome in the general childhood population is 1-2% and the most common cause is adenotonsillar hypertrophy. However, beyond adenotonsillar hypertrophy, there are other highly prevalent causes of this syndrome in children. The causes are often multifactorial and include muscular hypotonia, dentofacial abnormalities, soft tissue hypertrophy of the airway, and neurological disorders). Collaboration between different specialties involved in the care of these children is essential, given the wide variability of conditions and how frequently different factors are involved in their genesis, as well as the different treatments to be applied. We carried out a wide literature review of other causes of obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome in children, beyond adenotonsillar hypertrophy. We organised the prevalence of this syndrome in each pathology and the reasons that cause it, as well as their interactions and management, in a consistent manner.Acta Otorrinolaringológica Española 08/2014;
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ABSTRACT: Airway patency in both children and adults depends on the tonic and phasic activation of muscles of the tongue and pharynx supplied by the hypoglossal nerve arising at the medullary level. We report a case of a 2-year-old who after resection of fourth ventricle anaplastic ependymoma developed severe sleep disordered breathing and tongue fasciculation. Polysomnography showed severe obstructive sleep apnea with oxygen desaturation to 33%. Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain showed post-surgical effacement of the dorsal lateral medulla. We postulate that damage to the hypoglossal nerve at the level of the medulla contributed to the patient's severe obstructive sleep apnea. Patient was treated with tracheostomy. DelRosso LM; Hoque R; Gonzalez-Toledo E. Two-year-old with post-surgical hypoglossal nerve injury and obstructive sleep apnea. J Clin Sleep Med 2014;10(1):97-98.Journal of clinical sleep medicine: JCSM: official publication of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine 01/2014; 10(1):97-8. DOI:10.5664/jcsm.3372 · 2.83 Impact Factor