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An Insight into the Regiospecificity of Linoleic Acid Peroxidation Catalyzed by Mammalian 15-Lipoxygenases.

The Journal of Physical Chemistry B (Impact Factor: 3.61). 03/2013; DOI: 10.1021/jp312747q
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT 15-Lipoxygenases (15-LOs) catalyze the peroxidation reaction of linoleic acid (LA) in mammals producing almost exclusively 13-(S)-hydroperoxyoctadecadienoic acid (13-(S)-HPODE). Although several hypotheses have been formulated, the molecular basis of such enzymatic regiospecificity is unclear. We have here combined quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics (QM/MM) calculations with molecular dynamics simulations to analyze the peroxidation mechanism using a complete rabbit 15-LO-1/LA solvated model. Being equivalent C9 and C13 as for planarity and spin density, the QM/MM potential energy profiles of the O2 addition to those two atoms were calculated. The difference in the potential energy barrier heights is clear enough to justify that O2 selectively attacks C13 giving 13-(S)-HPODE. Oxygenation at C9 is hindered by two steric-shielding residues (Leu597 and Gln548). The calculated free energy profile at 300 K for the O2 addition to C13 confirms that the peroxidation on C13 is a reversible viable process in agreement with experiments. Thus, the subsequent reduction of the peroxyl radical to give the final hydroperoxidated product is expected to give the irreversibility character to the overall process.

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    ABSTRACT: We combined quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics calculations with molecular dynamics simulations to study the addition of O2 to the pentadienyl radical of arachidonic acid (AA) catalyzed by the Leu597Val and Leu597Ala mutants of rabbit 15-lipoxygenase (15-rLO). In the Leu597Val mutant, the addition of O2 to C15 of AA is the predominant path, although it reduces the C15/C11 product ratio by almost ten times with respect to the wildtype enzyme. The S stereochemistry is kept. Mutation to Ala causes just the opposite effect: regiospecificity favoring addition to C15 is somewhat sharper than that in the wildtype, but the stereochemistry is R. This is because the extra space created by the mutation to Ala is big enough for AA to move so that it can adopt an alternative binding mode, and this opens new feasible paths for the attack of O2. So, we showed that the Leu597Ala mutant of 15r-LO works as an aspirin-acetylated cyclooxygenase-2, which makes 15-(R)- hydroperoxyeicosatetraenoic acid.
    ChemPhysChem 04/2014; · 3.35 Impact Factor

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May 21, 2014