How do depressive symptoms influence self-care among an ethnic minority population with heart failure?
ABSTRACT Depression is very common in patients with heart failure (HF). However, little is known about how depression influences self-care (ie, adherence to diet, medication and symptom management behaviors) in ethnic minority patients with HF. The purpose of this study was to explore the meaning of depression and how depressive symptoms affect self-care in an ethnic minority Black population with HF.
In this mixed methods study, 30 Black patients (mean age 59.63 SD +/- 15 years; 60% male) participated in in-depth interviews about HF self-care and mood; and completed standardized instruments measuring self-care, depression, and physical functioning. Thematic content analysis was used to explore the meaning of depression and elicit themes about how depressive symptoms affect daily self-care practices. Qualitative and quantitative data were integrated in the final analytic phase.
Self-care was very poor in the sample. Forty percent of the sample had evidence of depressive symptoms (PHQ-9 > or = 10; mean 7.59 +/- 5.29, range 0 to 22). Individuals with depressive symptoms had poorer self-care (P = .029). In the qualitative data, individuals described depressive mood as "feeling blue... like I failed." "Overwhelming" sadness and fatigue influenced self-care and resulted in treatment delays. For many, spirituality was central to coping with sadness. Few discussed depressive feelings with health care providers.
Depression in ethnic minority patients with HF may be difficult to assess. Research to develop and test culturally sensitive interventions is critically needed, since depression influences self-care and minority populations continue to experience poorer outcomes.
SourceAvailable from: Bradi B Granger[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
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ABSTRACT: In the United States, the highest prevalence of heart failure (HF) is in blacks followed by whites. Compared with whites, blacks have a higher risk of HF-related morbidity and mortality and HF-related hospitalization. Little research has focused on explaining the reasons for these disparities. The purpose of this study was to examine racial differences in demographic and clinical characteristics in blacks and whites with HF and to determine if these characteristics influenced treatment, or together with treatment, influenced self-care behaviors. This was a secondary analysis of existing data collected from adults (n=272) with chronic HF enrolled from outpatient sites in the northeastern United States and followed for 6 months. After adjusting for sociodemographic and clinical characteristics within reduced (HFrEF) and preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) groups, there were 2 significant racial differences in clinical treatment. Blacks with HFrEF were prescribed ACE inhibitors and hydralazine and isosorbide dinitrate (H-ISDN) more often than whites. In the HFpEF group, blacks were taking more medications and were prescribed digoxin and a diuretic when symptomatic. Deficits in HF knowledge and decreased medication adherence, objectively measured, were more prominent in blacks. These racial differences were not explained by sociodemographic or clinical characteristics or clinical treatment variables. Premorbid intellect and the quality of support received contributed to clinical treatment and self-care. Although few differences in clinical treatment could be attributed solely to race, knowledge about HF and medication adherence is lower in blacks than whites. Further research is needed to explain these observations, which may be targets for future intervention research. © 2015 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley Blackwell.Journal of the American Heart Association 03/2015; 4(4). DOI:10.1161/JAHA.114.001561 · 2.88 Impact Factor
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