Costs of Criminal Justice Involvement Among Persons With Serious Mental Illness in Connecticut
ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE This study sought to describe patterns and costs of criminal justice involvement among adults with serious mental illness who received services across public agencies within a single state. Costs were examined from the perspective of state agencies providing mental health, substance abuse, and criminal justice services. METHODS Administrative records for 25,133 adults who were served by the Connecticut Department of Mental Health and Addiction Services (DMHAS) during fiscal years 2006 and 2007 and who had a diagnosis of schizophrenia or bipolar disorder were matched with records of the state Medicaid program, Judicial Branch, Department of Correction, and Department of Public Safety. Unit costs for service events were combined with utilization data to calculate costs per person. RESULTS About one in four individuals was involved with the justice system during the two-year period. The justice-involved group incurred costs approximately double those of the group with no involvement-$48,980 compared with $24,728 per person. Costs were shared by several state agencies and Medicaid. DMHAS bore the largest proportion of state service costs, covering 49% of total costs for persons with justice involvement and 69% of costs for those without involvement. CONCLUSIONS Criminal justice involvement is a complex and costly problem that affects a substantial proportion of adults with serious mental illness who receive services across state agencies. Applying per-person cost estimates in other states could help mental health and criminal justice systems to better plan, coordinate, and deliver cost-effective services to individuals with serious mental illness who become involved with the criminal justice system.
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ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE This study examined whether possession of psychotropic medication and receipt of outpatient services reduce the likelihood of posthospitalization arrest among adults with serious mental illness. A secondary aim was to compare service system costs for individuals who were involved with the justice system and those who were not. METHODS Claims data for prescriptions and treatments were used to describe patterns and costs of outpatient services between 2005 and 2012 for 4,056 adult Florida Medicaid enrollees with schizophrenia or bipolar disorder after discharge from an index hospitalization. Multivariable time-series analysis tested the effects of medication and outpatient services on arrest (any, felony, or misdemeanor) in subsequent 30-day periods. RESULTS A total of 1,263 participants (31%) were arrested at least once during follow-up. Monthly medication possession and receipt of outpatient services reduced the likelihood of any arrests (misdemeanor or felony) and of misdemeanor arrests. Possession of medications for 90 days after hospital discharge also reduced the likelihood of arrest. Prior justice involvement, minority racial-ethnic status, and male sex increased the risk of arrest, whereas older age decreased it. Criminal justice and behavioral health system costs were significantly higher for the justice-involved group than for the group with no justice involvement. CONCLUSIONS Routine outpatient treatment, including medication and outpatient services, may reduce the likelihood of arrest among adults with serious mental illness. Medication possession over a 90-day period after hospitalization appears to confer additional protection. Overall, costs were lower for those who were not arrested, even when they used more outpatient services.Psychiatric services (Washington, D.C.) 05/2013; 64(9). DOI:10.1176/appi.ps.201200406 · 1.99 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE Adults with serious mental illness have a relatively high risk of criminal justice involvement. Some risk factors for justice involvement are known, but the specific interaction of these risk factors has not been examined. This study explored the interaction of gender, substance use disorder, and psychiatric diagnosis among patients with schizophrenia or bipolar disorder to identify subgroups at higher risk of justice involvement. METHODS Administrative service records of 25,133 adults with schizophrenia or bipolar disorder who were clients of Connecticut's public behavioral health system during 2005-2007 were merged with state records of criminal convictions, incarceration, and other measures of justice involvement. The main effects and the effects of interactions of gender, substance use disorder, and psychiatric diagnosis on risk of justice involvement ("offending") were estimated by using multivariable logistic regression. RESULTS Men with bipolar disorder and co-occurring substance use disorder had the highest absolute risk of offending in every category of justice involvement. For both men and women, bipolar disorder was associated with an increased risk of offending versus schizophrenia, but the increase was significantly greater for women. Substance use disorder also increased risk of offending more among women than men, especially among those with schizophrenia. CONCLUSIONS Men and women with bipolar disorder and substance use disorders have much higher risk of justice involvement than those with schizophrenia, especially those without a substance use disorder. Research is needed to validate these effects in other populations and specify risk factors for justice involvement among adults with mental illness.Psychiatric services (Washington, D.C.) 03/2014; 65(7). DOI:10.1176/appi.ps.201300044 · 1.99 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Care and outcomes for people with schizophrenia have improved in recent years, but further progress is needed to help more individuals achieve an independent and fulfilled life. This report sets out the current need, informs policy makers and all relevant stakeholders who influence care quality, and supports their commitment to creating a better future. The authors recommend the following policy actions, based on research evidence, stakeholder consultation, and examples of best practice worldwide. (1) Provide an evidence-based, integrated care package for people with schizophrenia that addresses their mental and physical health needs. (2) Provide support for people with schizophrenia to enter and to remain in their community, and develop mechanisms to help guide them through the complex benefit and employment systems. (3) Provide concrete support, information, and educational programs to families and carers on how to enhance care for an individual living with schizophrenia in a manner that entails minimal disruption to their lives. (4) All stakeholders, including organizations that support people living with schizophrenia, should be consulted to regularly revise, update, and improve policy on the management of schizophrenia. (5) Provide support, which is proportionate to the impact of the disease, for research and development of new treatments. (6) Establish adequately funded, ongoing, and regular awareness-raising campaigns that form an integral part of routine plans of action. Implementation of the above recommendations will require engagement by every stakeholder, but with commitment from all, change can be achieved.Schizophrenia Bulletin 04/2014; 40 Suppl 3:S165-94. DOI:10.1093/schbul/sbu006 · 8.61 Impact Factor