Discovery of Human Zinc Deficiency: Its Impact on Human Health and Disease
ABSTRACT The essentiality of zinc in humans was established in 1963. During the past 50 y, tremendous advances in both clinical and basic sciences of zinc metabolism in humans have been observed. The major factor contributing to zinc deficiency is high phytate-containing cereal protein intake in the developing world, and nearly 2 billion subjects may be zinc deficient. Conditioned deficiency of zinc has been observed in patients with malabsorption syndrome, liver disease, chronic renal disease, sickle cell disease, and other chronic illnesses. Major clinical problems resulting from zinc deficiency in humans include growth retardation; cell-mediated immune dysfunction, and cognitive impairment. In the Middle East, zinc-deficient dwarfs did not live beyond the age of 25 y, and they died because of intercurrent infections. In 1963, we knew of only 3 enzymes that required zinc for their activities, but now we know of >300 enzymes and >1000 transcription factors that are known to require zinc for their activities. Zinc is a second messenger of immune cells, and intracellular free zinc in these cells participate in signaling events. Zinc has been very successfully used as a therapeutic modality for the management of acute diarrhea in children, Wilson's disease, the common cold and for the prevention of blindness in patients with age-related dry type of macular degeneration and is very effective in decreasing the incidence of infection in the elderly. Zinc not only modulates cell-mediated immunity but is also an antioxidant and anti-inflammatory agent.
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ABSTRACT: Zinc plays an essential role in many biochemical pathways and participates in several cell functions, including the immune response. This review describes the role of zinc in human health, aging, and immunosenescence. Zinc deficiency is frequent in the elderly and leads to changes similar to those that occur in oxidative inflammatory aging (oxi-inflamm-aging) and immunosenescence. The possible benefits of zinc supplementation to enhance immune function are discussed.02/2015; 5:25592. DOI:10.3402/pba.v5.25592
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ABSTRACT: — Zinc is the most abundant trace element which has role in genetic stability and function, present in the cell nucleus, nucleolus and chromosomes, and stabilizes the structure of DNA, RNA and ribosomes and found in many Zinc binding proteins. The purpose of this study is to access the Zinc cytotoxicity, total cellular Zinc content and total Zinquin Acid (Fluorophore) interaction with cellular Zinc in response to six different Zinc gradient medium using MTT assay, Atomic absorption spectroscopy and Fluorescence spectroscopy respectively. Statistical analysis one way ANOVA and Tukey HSD test for mean comparison was performed. Our findings are, significant differences on normal cell line survival of 108.7% at 10 µM supplemented medium was seen. Cytotoxicity was seen at 80 µM of 89.78% and 86.46% in MDA-MB-231 and U-87-MG Cell lines respectively. Significant increase in cellular influx and accumulation of Zn2+ ions was observed in all cell lines. Fluorescence intensity emission peak response increased with supplementation of gradient medium, which supported the hypothesis of increased cellular Zinc accumulation, λ-max shifting to shorter wavelength i.e. idea supports blue shift emission of Zinquin Acid which interacts not only with free labile Zinc ions but with Zinc bound proteins. Zinc based fluorescence probes help detection of altered expression of Zinc.
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ABSTRACT: Between 5 and 10% of all proteins of a given organism are estimated to require zinc for function, and hence zinc is essential for almost any given metabolic process. It is therefore of great interest to understand major players and mechanisms that ensure the tight and correct control of zinc distribution and speciation in organisms and their individual cells. Significant progress has been made in recent years regarding 3-dimensional structures and modes of action of zinc sensor proteins, membrane-bound zinc transporters for cellular and sub-cellular uptake and efflux, as well as intracellular binding proteins. This feature article highlights advances in structures, zinc-binding sites and thermodynamics of proteins that are involved in zinc homeostasis and trafficking, including developments in understanding the metal selectivity of proteins.Chemical Communications 01/2015; 51(22). DOI:10.1039/c4cc10174j · 6.72 Impact Factor