The evaluation of efficacy and safety of paravertebral block for perioperative analgesia in patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy

Department of Anaesthesiology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Ansari Nagar, New Delhi, India.
Saudi journal of anaesthesia 03/2012; 6(4):344-349. DOI: 10.4103/1658-354X.105860
Source: PubMed


Paravertebral block is a popular regional anesthetic technique used for perioperative analgesia in multiple surgical procedures. There are very few randomized trials of its use in laparoscopic cholecystectomy in medical literature. This study was aimed at assessing its efficacy and opioid-sparing potential in this surgery.
FIFTY PATIENTS WERE INCLUDED IN THIS PROSPECTIVE RANDOMIZED STUDY AND ALLOCATED TO TWO GROUPS: Group A (25 patients) receiving general anesthesia alone and Group B (25 patients) receiving nerve-stimulator-guided bilateral thoracic Paravertebral Block (PVB) at T6 level with 0.3 ml/kg of 0.25% bupivacaine prior to induction of general anesthesia. Intraoperative analgesia was supplemented with fentanyl (0.5 μg/kg) based on hemodynamic and clinical parameters. Postoperatively, patients in both the groups received Patient-Controlled Analgesia (PCA) morphine for the first 24 hours. The efficacy of PVB was assessed by comparing intraoperative fentanyl requirements, postoperative VAS scores at rest, and on coughing and PCA morphine consumption between the two groups.
Intraoperative supplemental fentanyl was significantly less in Group B compared to Group A (17.6 μg and 38.6 μg, respectively, P =0.001). PCA morphine requirement was significantly low in the PVB group at 2, 6, 12, and 24 hours postoperatively compared to that in Group A (4.4 mg vs 6.9 mg, 7.6 mg vs 14.2 mg, 11.6 mg vs 20.0 mg, 16.8 mg vs 27.2 mg, respectively; P <0.0001 at all intervals).
Pre-induction PVB resulted in improved analgesia for 24 hours following laparoscopic cholecystectomy in this study, along with a significant reduction in perioperative opioid consumption and opioid-related side effects.

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    • "Despite the clear benefits of laparoscopic cholecystectomy compared with open surgery, postoperative pain is still a common complaint after it, and patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy may suffer from severe postoperative pain if analgesia is not managed appropriately.[5] Postoperative pain after laparoscopic cholecystectomy can prolong hospital stay and lead to increased morbidity and this is the main reason for overnight hospital stay after day care surgery in 17-41% of the patients.[467] "
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Postoperative pain is one of the most common complaints after elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy. The present study was aimed to evaluate the effect of paravertebral block using bupivacaine with/without fentanyl on postoperative pain and complications after laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Materials and Methods: This study was done on 90 patients scheduled to undergo elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Patients were assessed in two groups: The case group received bupivacaine and fentanyl, and the control group received bupivacaine and normal saline. Primary outcomes were severity of postoperative pain at rest and during coughing. Secondary outcomes were postoperative cumulative morphine consumption and the incidence of side-effects. Results: Pain score at rest before surgery, after recovery, hour-1 and hour-6 was not significantly different between the groups. But in hour-24 cases, the pain score during coughing was significantly higher than controls. Severity of pain at rest in time points was not different between groups. The frequencies (%) of moderate pain at mentioned times in case and control groups were 64, 31, 16, 9, 0 versus 67, 16, 7, 4, and 0, respectively. Pain score during coughing was lower in controls at hour-24 in comparison with cases, but in other time points was not significant. The control group significantly received more total dose of morphine in comparison with cases group. Nausea, vomiting and hypotension were similar in groups, but pruritus was significantly different between the groups. Conclusion: Adding fentanyl to bupivacaine in paravertebral block did not significantly improve the postoperative pain and complications after laparoscopic cholecystectomy. However, further studies are needed to be done.
    09/2014; 3:187. DOI:10.4103/2277-9175.140099
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    ABSTRACT: Single-injection paravertebral nerve blocks (PVBs) provide effective postoperative analgesia after adult laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC). We sought to compare PVBs with local anesthetic injections at laparoscopic port sites in a pediatric population. Eighty-three patients (8-17 years old) scheduled for LC were randomized prospectively to 2 treatment groups: the PVB group received ropivacaine 0.5% injected in the paravertebral space and normal saline injections at laparoscopic instrument sites, and the port infiltration group received normal saline in the paravertebral space and ropivacaine 0.5% at instrument sites. Postoperative analgesia was provided with hydromorphone via patient-controlled analgesia for up to 12 hours, followed by oxycodone and hydromorphone. The total amount of analgesic, serial visual analog scale scores for pain and subject pain control satisfaction, type and characteristics of pain, and complications were recorded for 24 hours. The intraoperative fentanyl requirement (ng/kg/min) was lower in the PVB group than in the port infiltration group (12.81 vs 16.57, P = 0.007). Total postoperative analgesic consumption and mean visual analog scale scores were not different between the groups. Baseline pain recorded before surgery correlated with self-reported postoperative pain scores only in the port infiltration group. The rate of complications was low and similar between groups. There was no difference in incidence of patient-reported incisional, visceral, or gas pain. Shoulder pain, however, was 49% less (95% confidence interval, 0.269-0.893) in the port infiltration group. PVBs did not reduce postoperative pain associated with pediatric LC but decreased intraoperative fentanyl requirements.
    Anesthesia & Analgesia 11/2014; 120(5). DOI:10.1213/ANE.0000000000000545 · 3.47 Impact Factor