The only vaccine available against tuberculosis (TB), the Bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG), does not provide effective protection against the most common forms of adult TB and in recent years efforts have been made to develop a new and improved vaccine. Among the strategies implemented, the generation of a new live attenuated mycobacterial strain is seen as one of the most promising and feasible, for scientific, ethical and practical reasons. The new understanding of the biology of the tubercle bacilli and of host-pathogen interaction processes, coupled with the possibility to engineer BCG or M. tuberculosis, opened new avenues to design "intelligent" vaccines, capable of eliciting the immune response associated with protection while avoiding the induction of the host immune response associated with immunopathology. The complex and highly immunogenic mycobacterial cell wall can shape the general and antigen specific immune response elicited following immunization, and the possibility to exploit this knowledge may lead to the development of new vaccines that could help conquer this ancient human disease.
"The exploitation of antigens from mycobacterial cell wall in design of new vaccines has been suggested for general and specific immune responses ( Morandi et al . , 2013 ) . The cell wall is a major virulence factor of mycobacteria , consisting of a peptidoglycan layer tied to a mycolic acid by the polysaccharide arabinogalactan , a polysaccharide composed of arabinose and galactose subunits that helps the survival under harsh conditions ( Niederweis et al . , 2010 ) . The mycolyl - arabinogalactanpepti"
"The exploitation of antigens from mycobacterial cell wall in design of new vaccines has been suggested for general and specific immune responses (Morandi et al., 2013). The cell wall is a major virulence factor of mycobacteria, consisting of a peptidoglycan layer tied to a mycolic acid by the polysaccharide arabinogalactan, a polysaccharide composed of arabinose and galactose subunits that helps the survival under harsh conditions (Niederweis et al., 2010). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Protein-subunit vaccines as boosting strategies against tuberculosis (TB) infection are currently in the pipeline of TB vaccine research. Their main limitation is represented by their poor immunogenicity, which makes it necessary to couple protein-subunits with adjuvant molecules. In this study, we employed replication-deficient invasive Escherichia coli strains to deliver Mycobacterium tuberculosis proteins to the cytoplasm of non-phagocytic eukaryotic cells using various priming and prime-boosting vaccination protocols. Our results demonstrate that intranasal administration of invasive E. coli expressing the M. tuberculosis protective antigen MPT64 to mice primed with a recombinant BCG strain over-expressing MPT64 on its surface, decrease bacterial burden in mice spleens. Our data suggest that replication-deficient invasive E. coli may represent a suitable platform for BCG/rBCG priming followed by homologous-boosting immunization strategies.
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