Evidence that YycJ is a novel 5'-3' double-stranded DNA exonuclease acting in Bacillus anthracis mismatch repair.
ABSTRACT The most important system for correcting replication errors that survive the built in editing system of DNA polymerase is the mismatch repair (MMR) system. We have identified a novel mutator strain yycJ in Bacillus anthracis. Mutations in the yycJ gene result in a spontaneous mutator phenotype with a mutational frequency and specificity comparable to that of MMR-deficient strains such as those with mutations in mutL or mutS. YycJ was annotated as a metallo-β-lactamase (MβL) super family member with unknown activity. In this study we carried out a biochemical characterization of YycJ and demonstrated that a recombinant YycJ protein possesses a 5'-3' exonuclease activity at the 5' termini and at nicks of double-stranded DNA. This activity requires a divalent metal cofactor Mn(2+) and is stimulated by 5'-phosphate ends of duplex DNA. The mutagenesis of conserved amino acid residues revealed that in addition to the five MβL family conserved motifs, YycJ appears to have its specific motifs that can be used to distinguish YycJ from other closely related MβL family members. A phylogenetic survey showed that putative YycJ homologs are present in several bacterial phyla as well as in members of the Methanomicrobiales and Thermoplasmales from Archaea. We propose that YycJ represents a new group of MβL fold exonucleases, which is likely to act in the recognition of MMR entry point and subsequent removal of the mismatched base in certain MutH-less bacterial species.
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ABSTRACT: Between 2% to 5% of all colon cancers arise in the setting of well-defined inherited syndromes, including Lynch syndrome, familial adenomatous polyposis, MUTYH-associated polyposis, and certain hamartomatous polyposis conditions. Each is associated with a high risk of colon cancer. In addition to the syndromes, up to one-third of colon cancers exhibit increased familial risk, likely related to inheritance. A number of less penetrant, but possibly more frequent susceptibility genes have been identified for this level of inheritance. Clarification of predisposing genes allows for accurate risk assessment and more precise screening approaches. This review examines the colon cancer syndromes, their genetics and management, and also the common familial colon cancers with current genetic advances and screening guidelines.Gastroenterology 06/2010; 138(6):2044-58. DOI:10.1053/j.gastro.2010.01.054 · 13.93 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The ability to recognize and repair abnormal DNA structures is common to all forms of life. Studies in a variety of species have identified an incredible diversity of DNA repair pathways. Documenting and characterizing the similarities and differences in repair between species has important value for understanding the origin and evolution of repair pathways as well as for improving our understanding of phenotypes affected by repair (e.g., mutation rates, lifespan, tumorigenesis, survival in extreme environments). Unfortunately, while repair processes have been studied in quite a few species, the ecological and evolutionary diversity of such studies has been limited. Complete genome sequences can provide potential sources of new information about repair in different species. In this paper, we present a global comparative analysis of DNA repair proteins and processes based upon the analysis of available complete genome sequences. We use a new form of analysis that combines genome sequence information and phylogenetic studies into a composite analysis we refer to as phylogenomics. We use this phylogenomic analysis to study the evolution of repair proteins and processes and to predict the repair phenotypes of those species for which we now know the complete genome sequence.Mutation Research/Fundamental and Molecular Mechanisms of Mutagenesis 12/1999; 435(3):171-213. DOI:10.1016/S0921-8777(99)00050-6 · 4.44 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: MutL homologs are crucial for mismatch repair and genetic stability, but their function is not well understood. Human MutLalpha (MLH1-PMS2 heterodimer) harbors a latent endonuclease that is dependent on the integrity of a PMS2 DQHA(X)2E(X)4E motif (Kadyrov, F. A., Dzantiev, L., Constantin, N., and Modrich, P. (2006) Cell 126, 297-308). This sequence element is conserved in many MutL homologs, including the PMS1 subunit of Saccharomyces cerevisiae MutLalpha, but is absent in MutL proteins from bacteria like Escherichia coli that rely on d(GATC) methylation for strand directionality. We show that yeast MutLalpha is a strand-directed endonuclease that incises DNA in a reaction that depends on a mismatch, yMutSalpha, yRFC, yPCNA, ATP, and a pre-existing strand break, whereas E. coli MutL is not. Amino acid substitution within the PMS1 DQHA(X)2E(X)4E motif abolishes yMutLalpha endonuclease activity in vitro and confers strong genetic instability in vivo, but does not affect yMutLalpha ATPase activity or the ability of the protein to support assembly of the yMutLalpha.yMutSalpha.heteroduplex ternary complex. The loaded form of yPCNA may play an important effector role in directing yMutLalpha incision to the discontinuous strand of a nicked heteroduplex.Journal of Biological Chemistry 01/2008; 282(51):37181-90. DOI:10.1074/jbc.M707617200 · 4.60 Impact Factor