Results of a National Survey Examining Canadians' Concern, Actions, Barriers, and Support for Dietary Sodium Reduction Interventions
ABSTRACT Population-wide dietary sodium reduction is considered a priority intervention to address sodium-related chronic diseases. In 2010, the Canadian government adopted a sodium reduction strategy to lower sodium intakes of Canadians; however, there has been a lack of coordinated action in its implementation. Our objective was to evaluate Canadians' concern, actions, reported barriers, and support for government-led policy interventions aimed at lowering sodium intakes. We conducted a survey among Canadians about sodium knowledge, attitudes, and behaviours. Data were weighted to reflect the 2006 Canadian census. Among 2603 respondents, 67.0% were concerned about dietary sodium and 59.3% were currently taking action to limit sodium intake. Those aged 50-59 years (odds ratio [OR], 1.79; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.17-2.72) and 60-69 years (OR, 1.63; 95% CI, 1.05-2.55) were more likely to be concerned about sodium vs younger individuals (20-29 years), as were hypertensive patients vs normotensive patients (OR, 4.13; 95% CI, 3.05-5.59). Older age groups and those with hypertension (OR, 3.48; 95% CI, 2.58-4.69) were also more likely to limit sodium consumption. Common barriers to sodium reduction were limited variety of lower sodium processed (55.5%) and restaurant (65.8%) foods. High support for government-led actions was observed, including interventions for lowering sodium levels in processed (86.6%) and restaurant (72.7%-74.3%) foods, and in food served in public institutions (81.8%-82.3%), and also for public education (80.4%-83.1%). There was much less support for financial incentives and disincentives. In conclusion, these concerns, barriers, and high level of support for government action provide further rationale for multi-sectoral interventions to assist Canadians in lowering their sodium intakes.
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ABSTRACT: People with Type 1 Diabetes (T1DM) or Type 2 Diabetes (T2DM) are at increased risk of developing cardiovascular disease (CVD). Despite good evidence that reducing sodium intake can reduce blood pressure and may reduce CVD risk in diabetes, salt intake in this population remains above recommended levels. The purpose of this study was to describe the knowledge and beliefs of health risks associated with a high salt diet in a population of adults with diabetes. The secondary aims of the study were to estimate the sodium intake, the sodium and potassium excretion and investigate if there was a relationship between label use and purchase behaviour and sodium intake and excretion.Appetite 08/2014; 83. DOI:10.1016/j.appet.2014.08.004 · 2.52 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Dietary sodium reduction is commonly used in the treatment of hypertension, heart and liver failure, and chronic kidney disease. Sodium reduction is also an important public health problem since most of the Canadian population consumes sodium in excess of their daily requirements. Lack of awareness about the amount of sodium consumed and the sources of sodium in diet is common, and undoubtedly a major contributor to excess sodium consumption. There are few known tools available to screen and provide personalized information about sodium in the diet. Therefore, we developed a Web-based sodium intake screening tool called the Salt Calculator ( www.projectbiglife.ca ), which is publicly available for individuals to assess the amount and sources of sodium in their diet. The Calculator contains 23 questions focusing on restaurant foods, packaged foods, and added salt. Questions were developed using sodium consumption data from the Canadian Community Health Survey cycle 2.2 and up-to-date information on sodium levels in packaged and restaurant food databases from the University of Toronto. The Calculator translates existing knowledge about dietary sodium into a tool that can be accessed by the public as well as integrated into clinical practice to address the high levels of sodium presently in the Canadian diet.Applied Physiology Nutrition and Metabolism 03/2014; 39(3):413-414. DOI:10.1139/apnm-2013-0322 · 2.01 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Background: The increase in prevalence of risk factors such as hypertension has contributed to an incremental rise in non-communicable diseases (NCDs) in Mongolia over recent decades, such that they now account for 80% of all deaths in the country. Salt reduction is one of the most cost-effective interventions to reduce the burden of NCDs. Methods: In 2011, the Ministry of Health (MOH) instigated the development of a national salt reduction strategy for Mongolia. As part of a 2-week national consultation and training program on salt reduction, it established an inter-sectoral working party and organized a series of bilateral meetings and visits to factories. Actions arising included a baseline survey of population salt consumption patterns and the implementation of a series of pilot salt reduction initiatives. Results: The results of the baseline assessment revealed that average daily intake of salt, based on 24 hour urine samples from a representative national sample (n=1,027), was 11.06±5.99 grams in 2011, more than double the World Health Organization (WHO) five grams recommendation. Moreover, while most participants knew that salt was bad for health, few were taking efforts to reduce intake, and many were consuming highly salty meals and tea; salt in tea alone was estimated to contribute 30% of daily salt intake. A pilot Pinch Salt intervention to reduce salt consumption of factory workers was undertaken in Ulaanbaatar (UB) city between 2012 and 2013, and was associated with a reduction of 2.8 grams of salt intake. Ongoing food industry initiatives have led to significant reductions in salt levels in bread, and companies producing processed meat have indicated a willingness to reduce salt. Relevant stakeholders have also supported the campaign by participating in annual World Salt Awareness Week events. The activities to date have demonstrated the potential for action and there is now a need scale these up to a national level to ensure that Mongolia is in a strong position to achieve a 30% reduction in population salt intake by 2025. The main goal of the Mongolian national salt reduction strategy is to create a social, economic and legal environment that supports salt reduction, including by influencing food supply, increasing partnerships between government and relevant stakeholders, and creating an enabling environment to support improved consumer choices. The strategy will be implemented from 2015 to 2025, with an interim review of progress in 2020. Conclusions: Given that Mongolia has one of the highest rates of stroke in the world, which is strongly associated with population-wide blood pressure (BP) levels, the addition of a population-based stroke surveillance program would provide a reliable direct assessment of the impact of these salt reduction initiatives on the health of the Mongolian people. The results from this research would likely be widely generalizable to other populations experiencing similar lifestyle transitional changes.