Alternative Tobacco Product Use and Smoking Cessation: A National Study.
ABSTRACT Objectives. We investigated the frequency of alternative tobacco product use (loose leaf, moist snuff, snus, dissolvables, electronic cigarettes [e-cigarettes]) among smokers and the association with quit attempts and intentions. Methods. A nationally representative probability-based cross-sectional survey of 1836 current or recently former adult smokers was completed in November 2011. Multivariate logistic regressions evaluated associations between alternative tobacco product use and smoking cessation behaviors. Results. Of the smokers, 38% had tried an alternative tobacco product, most frequently e-cigarettes. Alternative tobacco product use was associated with having made a quit attempt, and those intending to quit were significantly more likely to have tried and to currently use the products than were smokers with no intentions to quit. Use was not associated with successful quit attempts. Interest in future use of alternative tobacco products was low, except for e-cigarettes. Conclusions. Alternative tobacco products are attractive to smokers who want to quit smoking, but these data did not indicate that alternative tobacco products promote cessation. Unsubstantiated overt and implied claims that alternative tobacco products aid smoking cessation should be prohibited. (Am J Public Health. Published online ahead of print March 14, 2013: e1-e8. doi:10.2105/AJPH.2012.301070).
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ABSTRACT: Alternative tobacco products, such as snus, are emerging in the U.S. market. Understanding correlates of awareness and use, particularly judgments about harm and addictiveness, can inform public health communications about these products.Nicotine & Tobacco Research 08/2014; DOI:10.1093/ntr/ntu116 · 2.81 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: E-cigarette use has surged over the past few years while the debate about the product's safety and efficacy for smoking cessation continues. Little is known about the characteristics that distinguish users from nonusers; in this study, we aimed to elucidate these characteristics among hospitalized smokers, a heretofore unstudied population. Cross-sectional data were collected from cigarette smokers via hospital bedside interviews. Participants reported e-cigarette use status, reasons for use (if used), e-cigarette advertising exposure, expected likelihood of future e-cigarette use, desire to quit smoking, and demographic characteristics. Of the 657 English-speaking hospitalized smokers who provided data, 97% reported awareness of e-cigarettes and 46.4% reported e-cigarette use, with 20% reporting use in the previous 30 days. Previous e-cigarette use was significantly more likely among those who were White (odds ratio [OR] = 4.7; CI = 3.2-6.7), were married/domestic partner (OR = 1.5; CI = 1.0-2.2), had more than a high school education (OR = 1.7; CI = 1.1-2.7), had e-cigarette advertising exposure (OR = 1.6; CI = 1.1-2.4), and were younger (OR = 1.3; CI = 1.1-1.5). Expected likelihood of future e-cigarette use was high and positively correlated with desire to quit smoking (Spearman's ρ = .18, p < .0001). Rates of awareness and use of e-cigarettes may be elevated among hospitalized smokers, with more use reported among those who were White, younger, more educated, in a relationship, and exposed to e-cigarette advertising. The association between desire to quit smoking and expected likelihood of future e-cigarette use suggests that cigarette smokers may perceive e-cigarettes as a useful cessation aid.Nicotine & Tobacco Research 05/2014; 16(11). DOI:10.1093/ntr/ntu054 · 2.81 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: This study examined the effect of duration electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) use on e-cigarette dependence, frequency of use, and strength of nicotine solution as well as number of cigarettes smoked per day. Individuals were recruited at e-cigarette retail locations in a large metropolitan city in the midwestern portion of the United States in July 2013. A total of 159 participants completed a brief 29-item self-report measure that assessed behaviors and perceptions of use. The mean age of the participants was 35.8 years; 84.4% were White, and 53.7% were male. Increased duration of e-cigarette use was associated with fewer cigarettes smoked per day and differing patterns of dependence to e-cigarettes contingent upon smoking history. Additionally, increased duration of e-cigarette use was associated with increased frequency of use; however, this finding became nonsignificant when current tobacco cigarette use was accounted for, suggesting that individuals may increase e-cigarette use frequency as they decrease cigarette use. Overall, e-cigarette users tended to decrease the strength of nicotine in their e-cigarette products regardless of duration of use. Although preliminary in nature, this study identifies several factors that are important to consider when examining the effects of prolonged e-cigarette use. The implications of the current results should be informative to future studies that examine these variables in longitudinal designs.Nicotine & Tobacco Research 05/2014; 17(2). DOI:10.1093/ntr/ntu061 · 2.81 Impact Factor