Identification of microRNA targets in tomato fruit development using high-throughput sequencing and degradome analysis.
ABSTRACT MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play important roles in plant development through regulation of gene expression by mRNA degradation or translational inhibition. Despite the fact that tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) is the model system for studying fleshy fruit development and ripening, only a few experimentally proven miRNA targets are known, and the role of miRNA action in these processes remains largely unknown. Here, by using parallel analysis of RNA ends (PARE) for global identification of miRNA targets and comparing four different stages of tomato fruit development, a total of 119 target genes of miRNAs were identified. Of these, 106 appeared to be new targets. A large part of the identified targets (56) coded for transcription factors. Auxin response factors, as well as two known ripening regulators, COLORLESS NON-RIPENING (CNR) and APETALA2a (SlAP2a), with developmentally regulated degradation patterns were identified. The levels of the intact messenger of both CNR and AP2a are actively modulated during ripening, by miR156/157 and miR172, respectively. Additionally, two TAS3-mRNA loci were identified as targets of miR390. Other targets such as ARGONAUTE 1 (AGO1), shown to be involved in miRNA biogenesis in other plant species, were identified, which suggests a feedback loop regulation of this process. In this study, it is shown that miRNA-guided cleavage of mRNAs is likely to play an important role in tomato fruit development and ripening.
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ABSTRACT: In this paper we describe a novel, dominant pleiotropic tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)-ripening mutation, Cnr (colorless nonripening). This mutant occurred spontaneously in a commercial population. Cnr has a phenotype that is quite distinct from that of the other pleiotropic tomato-ripening mutants and is characterized by fruit that show greatly reduced ethylene production, an inhibition of softening, a yellow skin, and a nonpigmented pericarp. The ripening-related biosynthesis of carotenoid pigments was abolished in the pericarp tissue. The pericarp also showed a significant reduction in cell-to-cell adhesion, with cell separation occurring when blocks of tissue were incubated in water alone. The mutant phenotype was not reversed by exposure to exogenous ethylene. Crosses with other mutant lines and the use of a restriction fragment length polymorphism marker demonstrated that Cnr was not allelic with the pleiotropic ripening mutants nor, alc, rin, Nr, Gr, and Nr-2. The gene has been mapped to the top of chromosome 2, also indicating that it is distinct from the other pleiotropic ripening mutants. We undertook the molecular characterization of Cnr by examining the expression of a panel of ripening-related genes in the presence and absence of exogenous ethylene. The pattern of gene expression in Cnr was related to, but differed from, that of several of the other well-characterized mutants. We discuss here the possible relationships among nor, Cnr, and rin in a putative ripening signal cascade.Plant physiology 07/1999; · 6.56 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Plant microRNAs (miRNAs) show a high degree of sequence complementarity to, and are believed to guide the cleavage of, their target messenger RNAs. Here, I show that miRNA172, which can base-pair with the messenger RNA of a floral homeotic gene, APETALA2, regulates APETALA2 expression primarily through translational inhibition. Elevated miRNA172 accumulation results in floral organ identity defects similar to those in loss-of-function apetala2 mutants. Elevated levels of mutant APETALA2 RNA with disrupted miRNA172 base pairing, but not wild-type APETALA2 RNA, result in elevated levels of APETALA2 protein and severe floral patterning defects. Therefore, miRNA172 likely acts in cell-fate specification as a translational repressor of APETALA2 in Arabidopsis flower development.Science 04/2004; 303(5666):2022-5. · 31.20 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are endogenous approximately 22 nt RNAs that can play important regulatory roles in animals and plants by targeting mRNAs for cleavage or translational repression. Although they escaped notice until relatively recently, miRNAs comprise one of the more abundant classes of gene regulatory molecules in multicellular organisms and likely influence the output of many protein-coding genes.Cell 02/2004; 116(2):281-97. · 31.96 Impact Factor