Identification of microRNA targets in tomato fruit development using high-throughput sequencing and degradome analysis.
ABSTRACT MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play important roles in plant development through regulation of gene expression by mRNA degradation or translational inhibition. Despite the fact that tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) is the model system for studying fleshy fruit development and ripening, only a few experimentally proven miRNA targets are known, and the role of miRNA action in these processes remains largely unknown. Here, by using parallel analysis of RNA ends (PARE) for global identification of miRNA targets and comparing four different stages of tomato fruit development, a total of 119 target genes of miRNAs were identified. Of these, 106 appeared to be new targets. A large part of the identified targets (56) coded for transcription factors. Auxin response factors, as well as two known ripening regulators, COLORLESS NON-RIPENING (CNR) and APETALA2a (SlAP2a), with developmentally regulated degradation patterns were identified. The levels of the intact messenger of both CNR and AP2a are actively modulated during ripening, by miR156/157 and miR172, respectively. Additionally, two TAS3-mRNA loci were identified as targets of miR390. Other targets such as ARGONAUTE 1 (AGO1), shown to be involved in miRNA biogenesis in other plant species, were identified, which suggests a feedback loop regulation of this process. In this study, it is shown that miRNA-guided cleavage of mRNAs is likely to play an important role in tomato fruit development and ripening.
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ABSTRACT: Tomato Genomic Resources Database (TGRD) allows interactive browsing of tomato genes, micro RNAs, simple sequence repeats (SSRs), important quantitative trait loci and Tomato-EXPEN 2000 genetic map altogether or separately along twelve chromosomes of tomato in a single window. The database is created using sequence of the cultivar Heinz 1706. High quality single nucleotide polymorphic (SNP) sites between the genes of Heinz 1706 and the wild tomato S. pimpinellifolium LA1589 are also included. Genes are classified into different families. 5'-upstream sequences (5'-US) of all the genes and their tissue-specific expression profiles are provided. Sequences of the microRNA loci and their putative target genes are catalogued. Genes and 5'-US show presence of SSRs and SNPs. SSRs located in the genomic, genic and 5'-US can be analysed separately for the presence of any particular motif. Primer sequences for all the SSRs and flanking sequences for all the genic SNPs have been provided. TGRD is a user-friendly web-accessible relational database and uses CMAP viewer for graphical scanning of all the features. Integration and graphical presentation of important genomic information will facilitate better and easier use of tomato genome. TGRD can be accessed as an open source repository at http://188.8.131.52/tomato2/.PLoS ONE 01/2014; 9(1):e86387. · 3.53 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Fruits of angiosperms can be divided into dry and fleshy fruits, depending on their dispersal strategies. Despite their apparently different developmental programmes, researchers have attempted to compare dry and fleshy fruits to establish analogies of the distinct biochemical and physiological processes that occur. But what are the common and specific phenomena in both biological strategies? Is valve dehiscence and senescence of dry fruits comparable to final ripening of fleshy fruits, when seeds become mature and fruits are competent for seed dispersal, or to over-ripening when advanced senescence occurs? We briefly review current knowledge on dry and fleshy fruit development, which has been extensively reported recently, and is the topic of this special issue. We compare the processes taking place in Arabidopsis (dry) and tomato (fleshy) fruit during final development steps using transcriptome data to establish possible analogies. Interestingly, the transcriptomic programme of Arabidopsis silique shares little similarity in gene number to tomato fruit ripening or over-ripening. In contrast, the biological processes carried out by these common genes from ripening and over-ripening programmes are similar, as most biological processes are shared during both programmes. On the other hand, several biological terms are specific of Arabidopsis and tomato ripening, including senescence, but little or no specific processes occur during Arabidopsis and tomato over-ripening. These suggest a closer analogy between silique senescence and ripening than over-ripening, but a major common biological programme between Arabidopsis silique senescence and the last steps of tomato development, irrespective of its distinction between ripening and over-ripening.Journal of Experimental Botany 05/2014; · 5.79 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Fleshy fruits have evolved to be attractive to frugivores in order to enhance seed dispersal, and have become an indispensable part of the human diet. Here we review the recent advances in the understanding of transcriptional regulation of fleshy fruit development and ripening with a focus on tomato. While aspects of fruit development are probably conserved throughout the angiosperms, including the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana, it is shown that the likely orthologues of Arabidopsis genes have distinct functions in fleshy fruits. The model for the study of fleshy fruit development is tomato, because of the availability of single gene mutants and transgenic knock-down lines. In other species, our knowledge is often incomplete or absent. Tomato fruit size and shape are co-determined by transcription factors acting during formation of the ovary. Other transcription factors play a role in fruit chloroplast formation, and upon ripening impact quality aspects such as secondary metabolite content. In tomato, the transcription factors NON-RIPENING (NOR), COLORLESS NON-RIPENING (CNR), and RIPENING INHIBITOR (MADS-RIN) in concert with ethylene signalling regulate ripening, possibly in response to a developmental switch. Additional components include TOMATO AGAMOUS-LIKE1 (TAGL1), APETALA2a (AP2a), and FRUITFULL (FUL1 and FUL2). The links between this highly connected regulatory network and downstream effectors modulating colour, texture, and flavour are still relatively poorly understood. Intertwined with this network is post-transcriptional regulation by fruit-expressed microRNAs targeting several of these transcription factors. This important developmental process is also governed by changes in DNA methylation levels and possibly chromatin remodelling.Journal of Experimental Botany 08/2014; 65(16):4527-4541. · 5.79 Impact Factor