Glycolysis and Mitochondrial Respiration in Mouse LDHC-Null Sperm
ABSTRACT We demonstrated previously that a knock out (KO) of the lactate dehydrogenase type C (Ldhc) gene disrupted male fertility and caused a considerable reduction in sperm glucose consumption, ATP production, and motility. While that study used mice with a mixed genetic background, the present study used C57BL/6 (B6) and 129S6 (129) Ldhc KO mice. We found that B6 KO males were subfertile and 129 KO males were infertile. Sperm from 129 wild type (WT) mice have a lower glycolytic rate than sperm from B6 WT mice, resulting in a greater reduction in ATP production in 129 KO sperm than in B6 KO sperm. The lower glycolytic rate in 129 sperm offered a novel opportunity to examine the role of mitochondrial respiration in sperm ATP production and motility. We observed that in media containing a mitochondrial substrate (pyruvate or lactate) as the sole energy source, ATP levels and progressive motility in 129 KO sperm were similar to those in 129 WT sperm. However, when glucose was added, lactate was unable to maintain ATP levels or progressive motility in 129 KO sperm. The rate of respiration (ZO2) was high when 129 KO or WT sperm were incubated with lactate alone, but addition of glucose caused a reduction in ZO2. These results indicate that in the absence of glucose, 129 sperm can produce ATP via oxidative phosphorylation, but in the presence of glucose oxidative phosphorylation is suppressed and the sperm utilize aerobic glycolysis, a phenomenon known as the Crabtree effect.
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ABSTRACT: Abstract The present study evaluates the effect of oxamate derivatives (N-ethyl, N-propyl, N-butyl oxamates) on functional murine sperm parameters, towards a new male non-hormonal contraceptive. These derivatives are selective inhibitors of lactate dehydrogenase-C4 (LDH-C4). LDH-C4 is a sperm-specific enzyme that plays an important role in ATP production for maintaining progressive motility as well as to induce capacitation and hyperactivation. The results demonstrate that all oxamate derivatives selectively inhibited LDH-C4 in mouse sperm extracts. The IC50 values for hexokinase and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase were at least an order of magnitude greater than LDH-C4 IC50 values. Prodrugs of oxamate derivatives assayed on sperm cells diminished normal sperm motility parameters, acrosome reaction, and cell viability in a concentration dependent manner. Also, we performed in vivo studies to determine the potential toxicity and possible contraceptive ability of these inhibitors. Mouse sperm were more sensitive to the N-butyl oxamate ethyl ester (NBOXet). Furthermore, results showed that NBOXet was of a low toxicity substance that diminished the total and progressive motility as well as the kinematic parameters of sperm cells. Data from in vitro and in vivo studies showed that N-butyl oxamate and its prodrug, are selective inhibitors of sperm LDH-C4, has low toxicity, and inhibits sperm progressive motility, offering some of the desirable characteristics of a male contraceptive: effect, low toxicity, and selectivity.Systems biology in reproductive medicine 03/2014; 60(4). DOI:10.3109/19396368.2014.902144 · 1.85 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND The human sperm cell is very well suited for proteomic studies, as it is accessible, can be easily purified and is believed to be transcriptionally and translationally silent. The recent use of advanced proteomic approaches is clearly challenging the understanding of sperm biology. The aims of this review are to discuss the various human sperm proteomic studies, to create a compiled list of all the sperm proteins described to date and to re-assess the potential functional implications.METHODSA search of the scientific literature available in the PubMed/Medline database at 31 December 2012 was conducted for studies on human sperm proteomics. The complete list of proteins obtained was carefully analysed using different bioinformatics tools, including Reactome, a knowledgebase of biological pathways.RESULTSA total of 30 studies were identified. The proteomics studies have resulted in the identification of 6198 different proteins, an important proportion of which (around 30%) are known to be expressed in the testis. The proteins were assigned to various functional pathways, including metabolism, apoptosis, cell cycle, meiosis and membrane trafficking, among others. Unexpectedly, the sperm cell also contains a range of proteins involved in RNA metabolism and translational regulation, as well as proteins usually located in organelles believed to be absent in sperm, such as cytoplasmatic ribosomes and peroxisomes. Additionally, some proteins whose levels seem to be altered in low-quality sperm might have clinical relevance.CONCLUSIONS The analysis of the most complete sperm proteome available to date indicates the presence of several cellular protein pathways previously ignored in the male gamete. Confirming the activity of each of these pathways and understanding their biological significance will certainly boost the knowledge of human sperm and male fertility and infertility in the next years.Human Reproduction Update 09/2013; DOI:10.1093/humupd/dmt046 · 8.66 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: During maturation and storage, spermatozoa generate substantial amounts of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and are thus forced to cope with an increasingly oxidative environment that is both needed and detrimental to their biology. Such a janus-faceted intermediate needs to be tightly controlled and this is done by a wide array of redox enzymes. These enzymes not only have to prevent unspecific modifications of essential cellular biomolecules by quenching undesired ROS, but they are also required and often directly involved in critical protein modifications. The present review is conceived to present an update on what is known about critical roles of redox enzymes, whereby special emphasis is put on the family of glutathione peroxidases, which for the time being presents the best characterized tasks during gametogenesis. We therefore demonstrate that understanding the function of (seleno)thiol-based oxidases/reductases is not a trivial task and relevant knowledge will be mainly gained by using robust systems, as exemplified by several (conditional) knockout studies. We thus stress the importance of using such models for providing unequivocal evidence in the molecular understanding of redox regulatory mechanisms in sperm maturation. ROS are not merely detrimental by-products of metabolism and their proper generation and usage by specific enzymes is essential for vital functions as beautifully exemplified during male gametogenesis. As such, lessons learnt from thiol-based oxidases/reductases in male gametogenesis could be used as a general principle for other organs as it is most likely not only restricted to this developmental phase. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Redox regulation of differentiation and de-differentiation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - General Subjects 10/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.bbagen.2014.10.020 · 3.83 Impact Factor