Gentamicin-Collagen Implants to Reduce Surgical Site Infection: Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of Randomized Trials.
ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE:: To determine whether gentamicin-impregnated collagen sponges (gentamicin-collagen implants) decrease the incidence of surgical site infection (SSI). BACKGROUND:: SSIs cause substantial morbidity and increase the costs of healthcare. Antibiotic prophylaxis is a cornerstone of SSI reduction. Prophylactic local delivery of antibiotics with novel biodegradable drug carrier systems, such as the gentamicin-collagen implant, is a potential avenue for SSI reduction. Gentamicin-collagen implants have been previously assessed in multiple randomized controlled trials (RCTs) with conflicting results. Therefore, a systematic review and meta-analysis of all relevant RCTs was conducted to determine whether gentamicin-collagen implants reduce SSI. METHODS:: Major medical databases and trial registers were searched for published and unpublished RCTs. The endpoint of interest was the incidence of SSI. A random effects model was used and pooled estimates were reported as odds ratios (ORs), with the corresponding 95% confidence interval (CI). A subset analysis by incision type was planned a priori. RESULTS:: Fifteen RCTs encompassing a total of 6979 patients were included in the final analysis. The included studies were of moderate to high quality. Gentamicin-collagen implants significantly reduced SSI [OR = 0.51; 95% CI: 0.33-0.77; P = 0.001; number needed to treat (NNT) = 21; I = 75%]. These results were seen in subset analysis of clean (OR = 0.53; 95% CI: 0.33-0.87; P = 0.01; NNT = 30) and clean-contaminated surgery (OR = 0.43; 95% CI: 0.20-0.93; P = 0.03; NNT = 9) specifically. CONCLUSIONS:: Gentamicin-collagen implants decrease the rate of SSI.
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ABSTRACT: Sternal wound infections (SWI) continue to be a major cause of concern after cardiac surgery. It leads to prolonged hospital stay and increased morbidity, mortality and increased hospital costs. Prophylactic systemic antibiotics have been used to prevent surgical site infection (SSI). However, prolonged postoperative use of systemic antibiotics can lead to emergence of resistant organisms. Gentamycin Containing Collagen Implants (GCCI) when used during sternotomy closure produces high local antibiotic concentrations in the wound with a low serum concentration. There is evidence that the concentration of gentamicin in the mediastinal fluid reaches levels high enough to be effective against bacteria that are considered resistant to gentamycin and other antibiotics. However, questions have been raised about the safety and efficacy of GCCI. There were concerns whether GCCI can lead to systemic absorption with renal impairment and whether use of topical antibiotics can lead to emergence of antimicrobial resistance. We, hereby, review the literature on GCCI (Collatamp) and take the opportunity to appraise the scientific community about their role in cardiac surgery. Several recent studies have supported their clinical effectiveness. They should be used in dry condition and should not be soaked in saline even for a short period prior to use. However, for GCCI to become part of routine practice in cardiac surgery further large randomised studies are required. As the incidence of sternal wound infection is low in the specialty of cardiac surgery, for any study to be sufficiently powered to address this issue, multicenter studies might be the way forward. Based on the evidence presented in this manuscript it is recommended GCCI (Collatamp) can be a cost effective adjunct for prevention of sternal wound infection. They can also be used for treatment of Deep Sternal Wound Infection.Journal of Cardiothoracic Surgery 07/2014; 9(1):122. DOI:10.1186/1749-8090-9-122 · 3.05 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The aim of this randomized control study was to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of endoscopy for the treatment of surgical site infection (SSI), compared with conventional therapy. One hundred and six patients who were diagnosed with severe SSI were included in the study, performed from May 2005 to July 2012 at Tianjin Binhai New Area Dagang Hospital, China. Patients were randomly divided into two groups: 57 patients in group A treated by endoscopy and 49 patients in group B treated by conventional therapy for SSI. The primary outcome was the healing period of the wound; the secondary outcomes were the blood loss following surgery, visual analog scale (VAS) measurement, volume of irrigation saline during surgery, rate of skin transplantation, length of hospital stay and other complications. The mean wound healing time was significantly less in group A (10.0±2.5 days) than in group B (19.4±5.2 days). The mean VAS score 7 days after surgery in group A was significantly less compared with group B. The intra-operative blood loss, intra-operative volume of irrigation saline and length of the hospital stay were significantly reduced in group A compared with group B. No significant differences between the groups were revealed in terms of the duration of surgery and the clinical complications. This study demonstrated that the endoscopy procedure for the treatment of SSI reduces the wound healing time compared with that of traditional surgery, without increasing any risk of clinical events. The present study showed that endoscopy was not only effective but also safe in the therapy of serious SSI. However, a further randomized control trial is necessary to testify our conclusions.Experimental and therapeutic medicine 12/2014; 8(6):1727-1730. DOI:10.3892/etm.2014.2028 · 0.94 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Aminoglycoside antibiotics (AGAs) have proved an invaluable part of our antimicrobial armamentarium since their introduction into practice over 60 years ago. This review summarizes recent developments, defining their role in the context of the current global epidemic of antibiotic resistance, raising awareness of their toxicity profile, and highlighting current data on their utility as synergistic agents. Clinicians are facing an unprecedented threat from antibiotic resistance, resulting in an increased reliance on the addition of an AGA to provide adequate empirical cover in cases of severe sepsis. Concurrently, an increased awareness of the potential for severe disability, particularly from vestibular toxicity, has restrained directed therapy of AGAs to situations in which there are no appropriate alternatives. Their role as synergistic agents in the treatment of enterococcal endocarditis is currently under reevaluation, and new data have emerged on combination therapy for Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacteremia. AGAs are themselves coming under increasing threat from resistance, predominately from aminoglycoside modifying enzymes (mediating selective resistance) and 16S rRNA methyltransferases (conferring class-wide resistance). New agents and the development of alternate ways to circumvent resistance are likely to have important roles in future clinical care. Aminoglycosides retain an invaluable but well defined role, and will remain important agents into the foreseeable future.Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases 10/2013; DOI:10.1097/QCO.0000000000000012 · 5.03 Impact Factor