Selenium in the Environment, Metabolism and Involvement in Body Functions

ULg-FMV, Nutrition Unit, Department of Animal Production, Boulevard de Colonster 20, Bât. B43 4000, Liège, Belgium. .
Molecules (Impact Factor: 2.42). 03/2013; 18(3):3292-311. DOI: 10.3390/molecules18033292
Source: PubMed


Selenium (Se34 79) is a metalloid which is close to sulfur (S) in terms of properties. The Se concentration in soil varies with type, texture and organic matter content of the soil and with rainfall. Its assimilation by plants is influenced by the physico-chemical properties of the soil (redox status, pH and microbial activity). The presence of Se in the atmosphere is linked to natural and anthropogenic activities. Selenoproteins, in which selenium is present as selenocysteine, present an important role in many body functions, such as antioxidant defense and the formation of thyroid hormones. Some selenoprotein metabolites play a role in cancer prevention. In the immune system, selenium stimulates antibody formation and activity of helper T cells, cytotoxic T cells and Natural Killer (NK) cells. The mechanisms of intestinal absorption of selenium differ depending on the chemical form of the element. Selenium is mainly absorbed in the duodenum and caecum by active transport through a sodium pump. The recommended daily intake of selenium varies from 60 μg/day for women, to 70 μg/day for men. In growing ruminants the requirements are estimated at 100 μg/kg dry matter and 200 μg/Kg for pregnant or lactating females. A deficiency can cause reproductive disorders in humans and animals.

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Available from: I. Dufrasne, Feb 05, 2015
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    • "Selenium influence in several aspects of human health, including the induction of adequate immune response. Through incorporation in selenoproteins, selenium is involved in regulating important cellular processes in practically all tissues and cell types, including those involved in innate and adaptive immune responses such as in the spleen, liver, and lymph nodes (Hoffmann; Berry, 2008; Mehdi et al. 2013). Dietary Se and selenoproteins are also involved in immunoregulation, which is crucial for preventing excessive responses that may lead to autoimmunity or chronic inflammation (Huang et al. 2012). "
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    ABSTRACT: The HIV infection is characterized by both quantitative and functional progressive decrease of host's immunity, particularly related to the CD4+ T-cell depletion. The introduction of antiretroviral therapy increased the life expectancy of HIV/AIDS patients due to the increase in CD4+ T-cells, the inhibition of HIV replication, and the risk reduction of opportunistic infections. Despite the treatment efficacy, the patients are susceptible to side effects such as metabolic changes, which contribute to micronutrients deficiency and, consequently, promote a negative impact on immune function. In AIDS pathogenesis, a selenium deficient state may influence in the progression of HIV infection, since selenium plays an important role in the immune system. Recent studies have demonstrated that selenium supplementation in HIV-infected patients improves their pathophysiology. The relation between immune functions and selenoproteins as well as selenium metabolites highlights the selenometabolomics. This review describes the status of selenium and their metabolites in the HIV infection in the antiretroviral therapy context.
    Selenium: Dietary Sources, Properties and Role in Human Health, 4th Quarter edited by Wanda Morrison, 08/2015: chapter 3; Nova Science Publishers, New York, USA., ISBN: 978-1-63483-690-6
    • "such as redox status, pH and soil microbiological activity that affect Se assimilation and 372 concentration in plants/foods (Mehdi et al., 2013) that consequently lowers Se-serum levels 373 in humans (Bryzbesca et al., 2005; Haug et al., 2007). "
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    ABSTRACT: Bread is among the three top foods that provide most of the dietary selenium (Se) for most of the world population. Selenomethionine present in flour and bread is the major organic moiety (>65%). The Se concentration assayed in wheat kernels is mainly affected by agronomic factors such as soil fertility. The dry milling of wheat to produce refined flour and the technology to produce leavened breads also greatly affect Se concentration and bioavailability. The supranutritional intakes of inorganic and mainly organic Se have long been linked to the prevention of cancer, oxidative stress, and cardiovascular diseases. This review provides an overview of the different Se sources and agronomic, milling, and processing factors that affect Se concentration and bioavailability in yeast-leavened and sourdough breads and the nutritional and health implications that have been documented by food, medical, and nutrition scientists.
    Cereal Chemistry 03/2015; 92(2):134-144. DOI:10.1094/CCHEM-05-14-0110-RW · 1.23 Impact Factor
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    • "Interest in compounds containing selenium has increased in the past three decades, mainly due to their biological activities (Rayman, 2012). It is known to play an important role in both antioxidant defense (Ahmad et al., 2012) and immune function (Mehdi et al., 2013) and belongs to one of the most extensively studied chemopreventive and anticancer compounds (Ibáñez et al., 2011; Jayaprakash and Marshall, 2011; Moreno et al., 2012; Lamberto et al., 2013). It is Abbreviations: AMF, arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi; BRM, Batavia Rubia Munguía; DM, dry matter; FW, fresh weight; MEI, mycorrhizal efficiency index; +M, plants inoculated with mycorrhizal fungi; −M, plants not inoculated with mycorrhizal fungi; MV, Maravilla de Verano; SeU, selenium urea; SeCH3, imidoselenocarbamate; TSS, total soluble sugars. "
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    ABSTRACT: Mycorrhizal inoculation can enhance the nutritional value of lettuces. However, the role of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) in biofortification of selenium (Se) in lettuce is unknown. We tested the capacity of two cultivars of lettuces, inoculated or not with AMF, for accumulating Se in shoots after applying sodium selenite or new synthesized organic selenocompounds. Sodium selenite was the most effective for increasing Se in shoots, but it decreased levels of macronutrients, micronutrients and proteins in one cultivar. Mycorrhizal inoculation reduced the accumulation of Se in leaves, but inoculated plants had higher contents of minerals, proteins and/or sugars than the non-inoculated controls supplied with Se. Mycorrhizal inoculation may impair the biofortification of lettuces with Se, but could be adequate for cultivating lettuces on soils rich in Se. The organic imidoselenocarbamate improved the effectiveness of AMF for enhancing growth, and proteins and sugars in leaves of one greenhouse-grown cultivar of lettuce.
    Scientia Horticulturae 12/2014; 180:40–51. DOI:10.1016/j.scienta.2014.09.049 · 1.37 Impact Factor
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