Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation of the Dorsolateral Prefrontal Cortex Reduces Nicotine Cue Craving.
ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) can noninvasively stimulate the brain and transiently amplify or block behaviors mediated through a region. We hypothesized that a single high-frequency rTMS session over the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) would reduce cue craving for cigarettes compared with a sham TMS session. METHODS: Sixteen non-treatment-seeking, nicotine-dependent participants were randomized to receive either real high-frequency rTMS (10 Hz, 100% resting motor threshold, 5-sec on, 10-sec off for 15 min; 3000 pulses) or active sham (eSham) TMS over the DLPFC in two visits with 1 week between visits. The participants received cue exposure before and after rTMS and rated their craving after each block of cue presentation. RESULTS: Stimulation of the left DLFPC with real, but not sham, rTMS reduced craving significantly from baseline (64.1±5.9 vs. 45.7±6.4, t = 2.69, p = .018). When compared with neutral cue craving, the effect of real TMS on cue craving was significantly greater than the effect of sham TMS (12.5±10.4 vs. -9.1±10.4; t = 2.07, p = .049). More decreases in subjective craving induced by TMS correlated positively with higher Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence score (r = .58, p = .031) and more cigarettes smoked per day (r = .57, p = .035). CONCLUSIONS: One session of high-frequency rTMS (10 Hz) of the left DLPFC significantly reduced subjective craving induced by smoking cues in nicotine-dependent participants. Additional studies are needed to explore rTMS as an aid to smoking cessation.
SourceAvailable from: F. Saverio Bersani[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Introduction: Co-occurrence of major depressive (MDD) and alcohol use disorders (AUD) is frequent, causing more burden than each disorder separately. Since the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) is critically involved in both mood and reward and dysfunctional in both conditions, we aimed to evaluate the effects of dTMS stimulation of bilateral DLPFC with left prevalence in patients with MDD with or without concomitant AUD. Methods: Twelve MDD patients and 11 with concomitant MDD and AUD (MDD+AUD) received 20 dTMS sessions. Clinical status was assessed through the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS) and the Clinical Global Impressions severity scale (CGIs), craving through the Obsessive Compulsive Drinking Scale (OCDS) in MDD+AUD, and functioning with the Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF). Results: There were no significant differences between the two groups in sociodemographic (age, sex, years of education and duration of illness) and baseline clinical characteristics, including scores on assessment scales. Per cent drops on HDRS and CGIs scores at the end of the sessions were respectively 62.6% and 78.2% for MDD+AUD, and 55.2% and 67.1% for MDD (p<0.001). HDRS, CGIs and GAF scores remained significantly improved after the 6-month follow-up. HDRS scores dropped significantly earlier in MDD+AUD than in MDD. Conclusions: High frequency bilateral DLPFC dTMS with left preference was well tolerated and effective in patients with MDD, with or without AUD. The antidepressant effect of dTMS is not affected by alcohol abuse in patients with depressive episodes. The potential use of dTMS for mood modulation as an adjunct to treatment in patients with a depressive episode, with or without alcohol abuse, deserves further investigation.Journal of Affective Disorders 11/2014; 174. DOI:10.1016/j.jad.2014.11.015 · 3.71 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Vulnerability to drug related cues is one of the leading causes for continued use and relapse among substance dependent individuals. Using drugs in the face of cues may be associated with dysfunction in at least two frontal-striatal neural circuits: 1) elevated activity in medial and ventral areas that govern limbic arousal (including the medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) and ventral striatum) or 2) depressed activity in dorsal and lateral areas that govern cognitive control (including the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) and dorsal striatum). Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is emerging as a promising new tool for the attenuation of craving among multiple substance dependent populations. To date however, nearly all repetitive TMS studies in addiction have focused on amplifying activity in frontal-striatal circuits that govern cognitive control. This manuscript reviews recent work using TMS as a tool to decrease craving for multiple substances and provides a theoretical model for how clinical researchers might approach target and frequency selection for TMS of addiction. To buttress this model, preliminary data from a single-blind, sham-controlled, crossover study of 11 cocaine-dependent individuals is also presented. These results suggest that attenuating MPFC activity through theta burst stimulation decreases activity in the striatum and anterior insula. It is also more likely to attenuate craving than sham TMS. Hence, while many TMS studies are focused on applying LTP-like stimulation to the DLPFC, the MPFC might be a new, efficacious, and treatable target for craving in cocaine dependent individuals. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Brain Stimulation 12/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.brs.2014.11.021 · 5.43 Impact Factor