Risk of ischemic heart disease in women after radiotherapy for breast cancer.
ABSTRACT Radiotherapy for breast cancer often involves some incidental exposure of the heart to ionizing radiation. The effect of this exposure on the subsequent risk of ischemic heart disease is uncertain.
We conducted a population-based case-control study of major coronary events (i.e., myocardial infarction, coronary revascularization, or death from ischemic heart disease) in 2168 women who underwent radiotherapy for breast cancer between 1958 and 2001 in Sweden and Denmark; the study included 963 women with major coronary events and 1205 controls. Individual patient information was obtained from hospital records. For each woman, the mean radiation doses to the whole heart and to the left anterior descending coronary artery were estimated from her radiotherapy chart.
The overall average of the mean doses to the whole heart was 4.9 Gy (range, 0.03 to 27.72). Rates of major coronary events increased linearly with the mean dose to the heart by 7.4% per gray (95% confidence interval, 2.9 to 14.5; P<0.001), with no apparent threshold. The increase started within the first 5 years after radiotherapy and continued into the third decade after radiotherapy. The proportional increase in the rate of major coronary events per gray was similar in women with and women without cardiac risk factors at the time of radiotherapy.
Exposure of the heart to ionizing radiation during radiotherapy for breast cancer increases the subsequent rate of ischemic heart disease. The increase is proportional to the mean dose to the heart, begins within a few years after exposure, and continues for at least 20 years. Women with preexisting cardiac risk factors have greater absolute increases in risk from radiotherapy than other women. (Funded by Cancer Research UK and others.).
- Annals of Oncology 06/2013; 24(7):1847-1852. · 6.58 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Blocks have been used to protect heart from potential radiation damage in left-sided breast treatments. Since cardiac motion pattern may not be fully captured on conventional 3DCT or 4DCT simulation scans, this study was intended to investigate the optimization of the heart block design taking the cardiac motion into consideration. Whole breast treatment plans using two opposed tangential fields were designed based on 4DCT simulation images for 10 left-sided breast cancer patients. Using an OBI system equipped to a Varian Linac, beam-eye viewed fluoroscopy images were acquired for each of the treatment beams after patient treatment setup, and the MLC heart blocks were overlaid onto the fluoroscopy images with an in-house software package. A non-rigid image registration and tracking algorithm was utilized to track the cardiac motion on the fluoroscopy images with minimal manual delineation for initialization, and the tracked cardiac motion information was used to optimize the heart block design to minimize the radiation damage to heart while avoiding the over-shielding that may lead to underdosing certain breast tissues. Twenty-three sets of fluoroscopy images were acquired on 23 different days of treatment for the 10 patients. As expected, heart moved under the influences of both respiratory and cardiac motion. It was observed that for 16 out of the 23 treatments, heart moved beyond the planed heart block into treatment fields and MLC had to be adjusted to fully block heart. The adjustment was made for all but one patient. The number of the adjusted MLC leaves ranged from 1 to 16 (mean = 10), and the MLC leaf position adjustment ranged from 2 to 10 mm (mean = 6 mm). The added heart block areas ranged from 3 to 1230 mm(2) (mean = 331 mm(2)). In left-sided whole breast radiation treatments, simulation CT (and 4DCT) based heart block design may not provide adequate heart protection for all the treatments. A fluoroscopy-based method has been developed to adaptively optimize the heart MLC block to achieve optimal heart protection.Frontiers in Oncology 12/2014; 4:342.
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ABSTRACT: In the present study, we investigated the incidence of cardiotoxicity within 5 years of trastuzumab treatment and evaluated potential risk factors in clinical practice. The study cohort included 415 patients diagnosed with early breast cancer (EBC). Cardiotoxicity incidence was evaluated in patients receiving trastuzumab and those who did not. Multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to estimate hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals of potential risk factors for trastuzumab-related cardiotoxicity after appropriate adjustments. Incidence of cardiotoxicity in patients treated with trastuzumab was significantly higher than that in controls (23.7% vs. 10.8%, p<0.001). This result was adjusted for factors that might increase the risk of cardiotoxicity, such as history of coronary artery diseases or the use of anthracyclines for more than four cycles. Our findings indicated that treatment with trastuzumab was strongly associated with cardiotoxicity in EBC patients.Journal of Breast Cancer 12/2014; 17(4):363-9. · 1.32 Impact Factor