Dabigatran and Postmarketing Reports of Bleeding
ABSTRACT In the months following the approval of the oral anticoagulant dabigatran (Pradaxa, Boehringer Ingelheim) in October 2010, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) received through the FDA Adverse Event Reporting System (FAERS) many reports of serious and fatal bleeding events associated with use of the drug. Because dabigatran is an anticoagulant, reports of bleeding were anticipated, but the rate of reported incidents was unusually high and was greater than the concurrent rate of reported bleeding incidents with warfarin, which had been the anticoagulant of choice for nearly 60 years before dabigatran was approved. In contrast, the controlled trial that supported . . .
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ABSTRACT: Poor data quality can be a serious threat to the validity and generalizability of clinical research findings. The growing availability of electronic administrative and clinical data is accompanied by a growing concern about the quality of these data for observational research and other analytic purposes. Currently, there are no widely accepted guidelines for reporting quality results that would enable investigators and consumers to independently determine if a data source is fit for use to support analytic inferences and reliable evidence generation. We developed a conceptual model that captures the flow of data from data originator across successive data stewards and finally to the data consumer. This "data lifecycle" model illustrates how data quality issues can result in data being returned back to previous data custodians. We highlight the potential risks of poor data quality on clinical practice and research results. Because of the need to ensure transparent reporting of a data quality issues, we created a unifying data-quality reporting framework and a complementary set of 20 data-quality reporting recommendations for studies that use observational clinical and administrative data for secondary data analysis. We obtained stakeholder input on the perceived value of each recommendation by soliciting public comments via two face-to-face meetings of informatics and comparative-effectiveness investigators, through multiple public webinars targeted to the health services research community, and with an open access online wiki. Our recommendations propose reporting on both general and analysis-specific data quality features. The goals of these recommendations are to improve the reporting of data quality measures for studies that use observational clinical and administrative data, to ensure transparency and consistency in computing data quality measures, and to facilitate best practices and trust in the new clinical discoveries based on secondary use of observational data.03/2015; 3(1). DOI:10.13063/2327-9214.1052
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ABSTRACT: Atrial fibrillation is the most common arrhythmia in the elderly. It is responsible for significant morbidity and mortality from cardioembolic complications like stroke. As a result, atrial fibrillation patients are risk-stratified using the CHADS2 or CHA2DS2-VASc scoring systems. Those at intermediate-to-high risk have traditionally been treated with therapeutic anticoagulation with warfarin for stroke prevention. Although effective, warfarin use is fraught with multiple concerns, such as a narrow therapeutic window, drug–drug and drug–food interactions, and excessive bleeding. Novel oral anticoagulant agents have recently become available as viable alternatives for warfarin therapy. Direct thrombin inhibitor dabigatran and factor Xa inhibitors like rivaroxaban and apixaban have already been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for stroke prevention in patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation. Edoxaban is the latest oral direct factor Xa inhibitor studied in the largest novel oral anticoagulant trial so far: ENGAGE AF-TIMI 48. Treatment with a 30 mg or 60 mg daily dose of edoxaban was found to be noninferior to dose-adjusted warfarin in reducing the rate of stroke and systemic embolism in patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation, with a lower incidence of bleeding complications and cardiovascular deaths. Edoxaban was recently reviewed by an FDA advisory committee and recommended as a stroke-prophylaxis agent. Once approved, it promises to provide another useful alternative to warfarin therapy.Core Evidence 05/2015; 10:63-73. DOI:10.2147/CE.S61441
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ABSTRACT: Several pharmacokinetic studies have suggested that dabigatran possesses a number of ideal properties for expedited removal via extracorporeal methods. However, this practice has not been prospectively evaluated in patients with life-threatening bleeding or requiring emergency surgery secondary to dabigatran-associated coagulopathy. The purpose of this literature review is to evaluate the published evidence surrounding extracorporeal removal of dabigatran in the setting of emergency surgery or life-threatening bleeding. A query of MEDLINE, Web of Science, International Pharmaceutical Abstracts, and Google Scholar using the terms dabigatran, dabigatran etexilate, hemodialysis, renal replacement therapy, hemorrhage, and atrial fibrillation was used to retrieve relevant literature. Furthermore, a manual search of the references of the identified literature was performed to capture additional data. Current evidence suggests that extracorporeal removal of dabigatran may play a role in the setting of life-threatening bleeding and emergent surgery. Conflicting evidence exists with regard to the potential for redistribution based on serum dabigatran concentrations. In addition, a number of practicalities must be considered before incorporating this technique in the clinical setting. Extracorporeal removal of dabigatran may be a treatment modality in selected patients who require emergency reversal.Journal of medical toxicology: official journal of the American College of Medical Toxicology 12/2014; 11(1). DOI:10.1007/s13181-014-0448-6