Perspectives on designs of antiandrogens for prostate cancer.
ABSTRACT The androgen receptor (AR) regulates gene transcription in many tissues and is profoundly important in prostate cancer. Antiandrogens compete with the natural hormone and are front line therapeutics to treat prostate cancer. However, antiandrogens frequently become ineffective after prolonged treatment because of development of tumor resistance. This paper reviews design principles for new generations of antiandrogens: super antagonists and surface allosteric modulators. Super antiandrogens are compounds with higher binding affinity than natural agonists and that contain precisely engineered hydrophobic groups that disrupt AR function. AR surface is also an attractive alternative target. Surface inhibitors are small molecules that directly block the receptor-co-activator interface, preventing co-activator recruitment. The challenges to designing these compounds are significant but so is the potential for treatment of the disease.
Full-textDOI: · Available from: Eva Estebanez-Perpiña, Jul 05, 2015
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Article: Perspectives on designs of antiandrogens for prostate cancer.
- SourceAvailable from: Eva Estebanez-PerpiñaAndrogen Receptors: Structural Biology, Genetics and Molecular Defects., 2014 edited by Silvia Socorro, 01/2014: chapter Structural and Functional Analysis of the Androgen Receptor in Disease: pages 53-81; Nova., ISBN: 978-1-62948-693-2
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ABSTRACT: In drug discovery, it is essential to identify binding sites on protein surfaces that drug-like molecules could exploit to exert a biological effect. Both X-ray crystallography and NMR experiments have demonstrated that organic solvents bind precisely at these locations. We show that this effect is reproduced using molecular dynamics with a binary solvent. Furthermore, analysis of the simulations give direct access to interaction free energies between the protein and small organic molecules, which can be used to detect binding sites and to predict the maximal affinity that a drug-like molecule could attain for them. On a set of pharmacologically relevant proteins, we obtain good predictions for druggable sites as well as for protein-protein and low affinity binding sites. This is the first druggability index not based on surface descriptors and, being independent of a training set, is particularly indicated to study unconventional targets such as protein-protein interactions or allosteric binding sites.Journal of Medicinal Chemistry 04/2009; 52(8):2363-71. DOI:10.1021/jm801385d
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ABSTRACT: Prostate cancer (PCa) therapy typically involves administration of "classical" antiandrogens, competitive inhibitors of androgen receptor (AR) ligands, dihydrotestosterone (DHT) and testosterone (tes), for the ligand-binding pocket (LBP) in the ligand-binding domain (LBD) of AR. Prolonged LBP-targeting leads to resistance, and alternative therapies are urgently required. We report the identification and characterization of a novel series of diarylhydrazides as selective disruptors of AR interaction with coactivators through application of structure and ligand-based virtual screening. Compounds demonstrate full ("true") antagonism in AR with low micromolar potency, selectivity over estrogen receptors α and β and glucocorticoid receptor, and partial antagonism of the progesterone receptor. MDG506 (5) demonstrates low cellular toxicity in PCa models and dose responsive reduction of classical antiandrogen-induced prostate specific antigen expression. These data provide compelling evidence for such non-LBP intervention as an alternative approach or in combination with classical PCa therapy.Journal of Medicinal Chemistry 02/2012; 55(4):1635-44. DOI:10.1021/jm201438f