Review of Chemical Vapor Deposition of Graphene and Related Applications

Department of Electrical Engineering, ‡Department of Chemistry, and §Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, University of Southern California , Los Angeles, California 90089, United States.
Accounts of Chemical Research (Impact Factor: 22.32). 03/2013; 46(10). DOI: 10.1021/ar300203n
Source: PubMed


Since its debut in 2004, graphene has attracted enormous interest because of its unique properties. Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) has emerged as an important method for the preparation and production of graphene for various applications since the method was first reported in 2008/2009. In this Account, we review graphene CVD on various metal substrates with an emphasis on Ni and Cu. In addition, we discuss important and representative applications of graphene formed by CVD, including as flexible transparent conductors for organic photovoltaic cells and in field effect transistors. Growth on polycrystalline Ni films leads to both monolayer and few-layer graphene with multiple layers because of the grain boundaries on Ni films. We can greatly increase the percentage of monolayer graphene by using single-crystalline Ni(111) substrates, which have smooth surface and no grain boundaries. Due to the extremely low solubility of carbon in Cu, Cu has emerged as an even better catalyst for the growth of monolayer graphene with a high percentage of single layers. The growth of graphene on Cu is a surface reaction. As a result, only one layer of graphene can form on a Cu surface, in contrast with Ni, where more than one layer can form through carbon segregation and precipitation. We also describe a method for transferring graphene sheets from the metal using polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA). CVD graphene has electronic properties that are potentially valuable in a number of applications. For example, few-layer graphene grown on Ni can function as flexible transparent conductive electrodes for organic photovoltaic cells. In addition, because we can synthesize large-grain graphene on Cu foil, such large-grain graphene has electronic properties suitable for use in field effect transistors.

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    • "These results were explained by encapsulation of the Ni nanoclusters embedded into the DLC matrix by several layers of graphene [6]. On the other hand, it should be mentioned that along with nickel, the main catalyst used for graphene deposition is copper [33] [34] [35]. DLC films containing Cu usually grow in the form of copper nanoparticles embedded into the DLC matrix due to the inability of copper to form bonds with carbon at room temperature [36] [37] [38]. "
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    ABSTRACT: In the present study diamond like carbon films containing copper (DLC:Cu) were deposited by reactive magne-tron sputtering. Direct current (DC) sputtering and high power pulsed magnetron sputtering (HIPIMS) were used. The influence of the composition and structure on piezoresistive properties of DLC:Cu films was investigated. Structure of DLC:Cu films was investigated by Raman scattering spectroscopy and transmission electron mi-croscopy (TEM). Chemical composition of the films was studied by using energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDS) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Particularly analysis of XPS O1s spectra revealed oxidation of Cu nanoparticles. Piezoresistive gauge factor of DLC:Cu films was in 3–6 range and decreased with the increase of copper atomic concentration. Tendency of the decrease of the gauge factor of DLC:Cu films with the increased D/G peak area ratio (decreased sp 3 /sp 2 carbon bond ratio) was observed. It was found that resistance (R) of DLC:Cu films decreased with the increase of Cu atomic concentration by logarithmic law. It is shown that a quasilinear increase of piezoresistive gauge factor with log(R) is in good accordance with percolation theory. Temperature coefficient of resistance (TCR) of DLC:Cu films was negative and decreased with copper amount in Cu atomic concentrations ranging up to ~40%. Very low TCR values (zero TCR) were observed only for DLC:Cu films with low gauge factor that was close to the gauge factor of the metallic strain gauges. Role of some possible mechanisms: copper amount as well as Cu cluster size on the value of gauge factor is discussed.
    Diamond and Related Materials 11/2015; vol.60:p. 20- 25. DOI:10.1016/j.diamond.2015.10.007 · 1.92 Impact Factor
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    • "But the aggregation of rGO layers caused by pep stacking interactions, a large number of defects on a planar structure and the presence of oxygen functional groups on rGO impede the efficient electron transfer rate and severely affect the performance. It has been found that graphene synthesized by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) is suitable due to having fewer planar defects, which improve the electron transport properties and electrocatalytic activity [21] [22]. "

    Carbon 11/2015; 98:90-98. DOI:10.1016/j.carbon.2015.10.081 · 6.20 Impact Factor
    • "Bottom-up production methods are dominated by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) of hydrocarbons onto suitable metal substrates (e.g., copper), which gives access to high quality graphene wafers appropriate for applications in electronics and photonics [5] [6]. Unfortunately, issues related to the use of high temperatures and a sacrificial metal or the need of subsequent transfer processes hamper its widespread adoption. "
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    ABSTRACT: Anodic exfoliation of graphite has emerged as an attractive method to access graphene nanosheets in large quantities, but oxidation reactions associated to this process compromise the structural quality of the resulting materials. Here, we demonstrate that the type of starting graphite material impacts the oxygen and defect content of anodically exfoliated graphenes obtained thereof. We investigated highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) as well as graphite foil, flakes and powder as electrode in the anodic process. Importantly, materials with low levels of oxidation and disorder (similar to those typically achieved with cathodic exfoliation approaches) could be attained through proper choice of the graphite electrode. Specifically, using graphite foil afforded nanosheets of higher quality than that of HOPG-derived nanosheets. This discrepancy was interpreted to arise from the structural peculiarities of the former, where the presence of folds, voids and wrinkles would make its exfoliation process to be less reliant on oxidation reactions. Furthermore, cell viability tests carried out with murine fibroblasts on thin graphene films suggested that the anodically exfoliated graphenes investigated here (possessing low or high oxidation levels) are highly biocompatible. Overall, control upon the extent of oxidation and disorder should expand the scope of anodically exfoliated graphenes in prospective applications.
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