Review of Chemical Vapor Deposition of Graphene and Related Applications

Department of Electrical Engineering, ‡Department of Chemistry, and §Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, University of Southern California , Los Angeles, California 90089, United States.
Accounts of Chemical Research (Impact Factor: 24.35). 03/2013; 46(10). DOI: 10.1021/ar300203n
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Since its debut in 2004, graphene has attracted enormous interest because of its unique properties. Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) has emerged as an important method for the preparation and production of graphene for various applications since the method was first reported in 2008/2009. In this Account, we review graphene CVD on various metal substrates with an emphasis on Ni and Cu. In addition, we discuss important and representative applications of graphene formed by CVD, including as flexible transparent conductors for organic photovoltaic cells and in field effect transistors. Growth on polycrystalline Ni films leads to both monolayer and few-layer graphene with multiple layers because of the grain boundaries on Ni films. We can greatly increase the percentage of monolayer graphene by using single-crystalline Ni(111) substrates, which have smooth surface and no grain boundaries. Due to the extremely low solubility of carbon in Cu, Cu has emerged as an even better catalyst for the growth of monolayer graphene with a high percentage of single layers. The growth of graphene on Cu is a surface reaction. As a result, only one layer of graphene can form on a Cu surface, in contrast with Ni, where more than one layer can form through carbon segregation and precipitation. We also describe a method for transferring graphene sheets from the metal using polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA). CVD graphene has electronic properties that are potentially valuable in a number of applications. For example, few-layer graphene grown on Ni can function as flexible transparent conductive electrodes for organic photovoltaic cells. In addition, because we can synthesize large-grain graphene on Cu foil, such large-grain graphene has electronic properties suitable for use in field effect transistors.

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    • "Epitaxial growth, chemical vapour deposition (CVD) and mechanical cleavage of graphite for instance lead to the formation of very high grade of graphene materials with very low sp3 carbon contents [7] [8]. The dimension, ranging from nano-scale to micron sized and the number of layers superimposed across the graphene sheets may be finely tuned to produce materials with very versatile and specific bulk and surface properties [8]. The development of 3D dense or porous architectures is therefore critical to fully benefit from the natural properties of graphene [9] [10]. "
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    ABSTRACT: A direct approach to functionalize and reduce pre-shaped graphene oxide 3D architectures is demonstrated by gamma ray irradiation in gaseous phase under analytical grade air, N2 or H2. The formation of radicals upon gamma ray irradiation is shown to lead to surface functionalization of the graphene oxide sheets. The reduction degree of graphene oxide, which can be controlled through varying the γ-ray total dose irradiation, leads to the synthesis of highly crystalline and near defect-free graphene based materials. The crystalline structure of the graphene oxide and γ-ray reduced graphene oxide was investigated by x-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy. The results reveal no noticeable changes in the size of sp2 graphitic structures for the range of tested gases and total exposure doses suggesting that the irradiation in gaseous phase does not damage the graphene crystalline domains. As confirmed by X-ray photoemission spectroscopy, the C/O ratio of γ-ray reduced graphene oxide is increasing from 2.37 for graphene oxide to 6.25 upon irradiation in hydrogen gas. The removal of oxygen atoms with this reduction process in hydrogen results in a sharp 400 times increase of the electrical conductivity of γ-ray reduced graphene oxide from 0.05 S cm−1 to as high as 23 S cm−1. A significant increase of the contact angle of the γ-ray reduced graphene oxide bucky-papers and weakened oxygen rich groups characteristic peaks across the Fourier transform infrared spectra further illustrate the efficacy of the γ-ray reduction process. A mechanism correlating the interaction between hydrogen radicals formed upon γ-ray irradiation of hydrogen gas and the oxygen rich groups on the surface of the graphene oxide bucky-papers is proposed, in order to contribute to the synthesis of reduced graphene materials through solution-free chemistry routes.
    Applied Surface Science 12/2014; 322:126-135. DOI:10.1016/j.apsusc.2014.10.070 · 2.54 Impact Factor
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    • "Any gaseous, liquid or solid source of carbon including hydrocarbons, carbohydrates could be used as precursors [6] [7] [8]. However, methane is the most commonly used carbon source as it yields the highest quality graphene [9]. At 1000 °C, it undergoes thermal decomposition yielding monolayer graphene. "
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    ABSTRACT: We report on a highly efficient growth of graphene using dehydrogenation of acetylene by an oxidative reaction with carbon dioxide. In few seconds, large-area of copper foil used as catalyst of the reaction is fully covered with graphene. The yield of the reaction can be as high as 0.1%. This method allows the growth of multilayered graphene with misoriented layer stacking. This could be the result of functional (carboxylic, hydroxyl, epoxy) groups, taking the role of catalytic centers, attached to the surface of the layers. The thickness of graphene is controlled by the growth duration. The presence of the functional groups is useful for further chemical manipulations but they have limited impact on the electrical and optical properties of the graphene films. The as-synthesized bilayer graphene has a mobility of positive charge carriers of 2300 cm2 V−1 s−1 at room temperature. The high quality of the oxidative dehydrogenation product makes this process an attractive alternative to produce high quality graphene by chemical vapor deposition.
    Carbon 05/2014; 71:11–19. DOI:10.1016/j.carbon.2013.12.032 · 6.16 Impact Factor
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    • "For this reason STL has to be performed on graphene supported on an electrically conductive substrate. The most obvious candidate in for this is graphene prepared on a copper surface by CVD [9] [30], which is a promising method to grow high quality graphene layers on a large scale. Furthermore, graphene can now be routinely transferred from the initial copper surface to arbitrary substrates [31] [32], raising the possibility of transferring the STL prepared nanostructures to insulating surfaces for further characterization. "
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    ABSTRACT: The properties of graphene nanoribbons are dependent on both the nanoribbon width and the crystallographic orientation of the edges. Scanning tunneling microscope lithography is a method which is able to create graphene nanoribbons with well defined edge orientation, having a width of a few nanometers. However, it has only been demonstrated on the top layer of graphite. In order to allow practical applications of this powerful lithography technique, it needs to be implemented on single layer graphene. We demonstrate the preparation of graphene nanoribbons with well defined crystallographic orientation on top of gold substrates. Our transfer and lithography approach brings one step closer the preparation of well defined graphene nanoribbons on arbitrary substrates for nanoelectronic applications.
    Applied Surface Science 02/2014; 291:48–52. DOI:10.1016/j.apsusc.2013.11.012 · 2.54 Impact Factor
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