Rapid Decrease of 7-Valent Conjugate Vaccine Coverage for Invasive Pneumococcal Diseases in Pediatric Patients in Japan.
ABSTRACT In Japan, the heptavalent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) has been introduced on a voluntary basis since February 2010, and official financial support for children under 5 years started in November 2010. The impact of PCV7 on invasive pneumococcal diseases (IPD) in children is unknown. There are 340 medical institutions that actively participated in our surveillance project throughout Japan. We collected 252 strains from patients with IPD in 2006 (pre-PCV7), 280 strains in 2010 (under 10% immunization achieved), and 128 strains in 2011 (50% to 60% immunization). Serotypes and penicillin-resistance genotypes (g) were compared between these years. Multilocus sequence typing was also carried out on these strains. Due to the official promotion, IPD significantly decreased in 2011 (p<0.001). In particular, meningitis and sepsis caused by vaccine type (VT) strains declined (p=0.033, p<0.001). In less than 2 years, among nonvaccine types (NVT), 15A and 22F increased in 2011 (p=0.015, p=0.015). Coverage by PCV7 decreased from 71.8% in 2006 to 51.6% in 2011. Sequence-type diversities accompanied by evolution to gPRSP occurred in both VT and NVT strains. Reduction of IPD caused by VT strains was accomplished, but a rapid increase of NVT raises concern about a future decrease in the efficacy of PCV7.
Article: Changes in nasopharyngeal carriage of Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae and Moraxella catarrhalis among healthy children attending a day-care centre before and after official financial support for the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine and H. influenzae type b vaccine in Japan[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) and Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) vaccine reduce nasopharyngeal carriage of vaccine-type bacteria, which may in turn influence the presence of other nasopharyngeal bacterial pathogens. To investigate this possibility, nasopharyngeal carriage of potential pathogens was examined before and after official financial support was provided to offer the PCV7 and Hib vaccines in healthy children attending a day care centre in Japan during 2011-2012. Despite a virtual disappearance of PCV7 serotypes over time, the overall pneumococcal carriage rate remained unchanged. Although others have reported an increase in PCV13 serotypes following PCV7 vaccination, only non-PCV13 serotypes were observed to have increased in this study. The majority of H. influenzae isolates were non-typeable and Hib was not found. Our data identified an unexpected pattern of pneumococcal serotype replacement following PCV7. Continuous monitoring of pneumococcal carriage is important for decisions regarding the future of national vaccination policy in Japan.Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy 02/2014; 20(2):146-9. DOI:10.1016/j.jiac.2013.10.007 · 1.38 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Introduction of the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) in February 2010 markedly reduced the burden of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) and changed serotype distribution in Japan. We investigated the serotype distribution and susceptibility trends of non-invasive Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates collected from pediatric patients. A total of 564 pneumococcal isolates were collected over a 5-year period between 2008 and 2012. The coverage of PCV7 significantly decreased throughout the study period, from 49.3% in period 1 (between June 2008 and April 2009) to 23.4% in period 4 (between October 2011 and March 2012). This change was mainly due to a large decrease in the frequency of 19F (from 20.6% to 9.9%) and 6B (from 10.3% to 2.7%) and an increase in serotype 3 (from 5.1% to 13.5%) and serogroup 15 (from 4.4% to 9.0%). According to serotype replacement, the susceptible ratios of S. pneumoniae to β-lactams increased slightly while macrolide resistance remained high. The high frequency of macrolide-resistant pneumococcal isolates may continue because of the high frequency of erm(B) in replace serotypes such as serotype 3 and serogroup 15. The continuous surveillance study is essential following the introduction of a second generation 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13).Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy 05/2014; 20(7-8). DOI:10.1016/j.jiac.2014.03.010 · 1.38 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: To investigate the trends in incidence and the characteristics of bacterial meningitis in Japan where Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) vaccine and 7-valent pneumococcal conjugated vaccine (PCV7) were introduced in 2008 and 2010, respectively, which was 5-20 years after their introduction in western countries. The nationwide Japanese survey of pediatric and neonatal bacterial meningitis was performed in 2011 and 2012. We analyzed the epidemiological and clinical data, and compared the information obtained in the previous nationwide survey database. We also investigated the risk factors for disease outcome. In the 2011-2012 surveys, 357 patients were evaluated. H. influenzae, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Streptococcus agalactiae and Escherichia coli were the main organisms. The number of patients hospitalized with bacterial meningitis per 1000 admissions decreased from 1.31 in 2009 to 0.43 in 2012 (p < 0.001). The incidence of H. influenzae and S. pneumoniae meningitis also decreased from 0.66 to 0.08 (p < 0.001), and 0.30 to 0.06 (p < 0.001), respectively. Only 0-2 cases with Neisseria meningitidis were reported each year throughout 2001-2012. The median patient age was 10-12 months in 2001-2011, and became lower in 2012 (2 month old) (p < 0.001). The fatality rate for S. agalactiae is the highest (5.9% (11/187)) throughout 2001-2012 among the four organisms. Risk factors for death and sequelae were convulsions at onset, low CSF glucose, S. agalactiae etiology, and persistent positive CSF culture. Hib vaccine and PCV7 decreased the rate of bacterial meningitis. Earlier introduction of these vaccines may have prevented bacterial meningitis among Japanese children.Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy 05/2014; 20(7-8). DOI:10.1016/j.jiac.2014.04.007 · 1.38 Impact Factor