Evaporation of Droplets on Superhydrophobic Surfaces: Surface Roughness and Small Droplet Size Effects
ABSTRACT Evaporation of a sessile droplet is a complex, nonequilibrium phenomenon. Although evaporating droplets upon superhydrophobic surfaces have been known to exhibit distinctive evaporation modes such as a constant contact line (CCL), a constant contact angle (CCA), or both, our fundamental understanding of the effects of surface roughness on the wetting transition remains elusive. We show that the onset time for the CCL-CCA transition and the critical base size at the Cassie-Wenzel transition exhibit remarkable dependence on the surface roughness. Through global interfacial energy analysis we reveal that, when the size of the evaporating droplet becomes comparable to the surface roughness, the line tension at the triple line becomes important in the prediction of the critical base size. Last, we show that both the CCL evaporation mode and the Cassie-Wenzel transition can be effectively inhibited by engineering a surface with hierarchical roughness.
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ABSTRACT: The wetting transition from the Cassie-Baxter to the Wenzel state is a phenomenon critically pertinent to the functionality of micro-structured superhydrophobic surfaces. This work focuses on the last stage of the transition, when the liquid-gas interface touches the bottom of the microstructure, which is also known as the "collapse" phenomenon. The process was examined in situ on a submerged surface patterned with cylindrical micropores using confocal microscopy. Both symmetric and asymmetric collapses were observed. The latter significantly shortens the progression of the metastable state prior to the collapse when compared with the former, and hence may affect the lifespan of superhydrophobicity. Further experiments identified that asymmetric collapse were induced by impurities due to prior use of the structure. The problem is thus of broad relevance, since endurance through cycles is a practical requirement for these functional surfaces. Finally, the use of hierarchical structures is proposed as a remedy. The embedded self-cleaning mechanism serves to effectively remove the impurities, so as to avoid the triggering mechanism for asymmetric collapses.Langmuir 12/2014; · 4.38 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: In this report we show that synchrotron X-ray radiography is a powerful method to study liquid-air interface penetration through opaque microtextured surface roughness, leading to wetting transition. We investigate this wetting phenomenon in the context of sessile drop evaporation, and establish that liquid interface sinking into the surface texture is indeed dictated by the balance of capillary and Laplace pressures, where the intrinsically three-dimensional nature of the meniscus must be accounted for. Air bubble entrapment in the texture underneath impacting water drops is also visualized and the mechanisms of post-impact drop evaporation are discussed.Scientific Reports 02/2014; 4:4055. · 5.08 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Droplet impingement experiments at low Weber numbers were conducted by digitizing silhouettes of impacting water drops onto unlike graphite substrates, typified by different advancing water contact angles (θa): 140 and 160°. The relaxation of wetting diameter, dynamic contact angle, and drop shapes were measured. The purpose was to carefully investigate the phenomenology and possible causes of the failure of the superhydrophobicity. During impact and spreading phases, all the drops impinging onto both graphite substrates showed a similar behavior. Then, after an initial free recoil, drops impinging at lower impact velocities onto graphite substrates characterized by θa = 140° clearly exhibited time intervals in which the wetting diameter appeared to be almost constant. The duration of this pinned phase was observed decreasing with increasing the impact height and almost completely disappearing for drops impinging at higher impact velocities. This behavior has never been reported before, and, contrariwise, water droplets impinging at lower impact velocities onto hydrophobic and superhydrophobic surfaces have been generally observed more freely retracting, and ultimately rebounding, compared to drops impacting at higher velocities. In the present study, this latter behavior was recorded just for drops impinging onto graphite surfaces characterized by θa = 160°. A theoretical description of the experimental results was proposed, specifically investigating the role of dynamic pressure, hammer pressure and liquid penetration time during the impact, spreading and recoil stages.Applied Surface Science 04/2014; 301. · 2.54 Impact Factor