Lifestyle behavior affecting prevalence of anemia among women in EAG states, India

Journal of Public Health (Impact Factor: 2.06). 11/2012; DOI: 10.1007/s10389-012-0548-1

Aim In India, the prevalence of anemia among women of
age group 15–49 years is much higher and it is necessary to
see the effect of lifestyle behaviors on women’s anemia
level for better understanding of women’s health in eight
empowered action group (EAG) states.
Subject and methods This research investigates the prevalence
and determinants of anemia amongwomen in EAGstates. The
researcher has examined the effect of lifestyle variables on the
anemia level of women of age group 15–49 years in EAG
states. This study utilizes the data obtained from National
Family Health Survey (NFHS-3, 2005–06). Bivariate and multivariate
analyses are used as well as the multinomial regression
analysis and multiple classification analysis conversion model
to calculate adjusted percentage of anemia level of women.
Results Prevalence of anemia was high among all women.
About 40.0 % of women had mild, 13.0 % had moderate,
and 1.4 % had severe anemia. Those women who belong to
the 15–19 year age group, no and low education, poorest
quintile and 3+ children are significantly more likely to be
anemic. Those women who are under weight, have been working
in the past years, smoke and chew tobacco, have no
exposure to mass media and never eating pulses and fruits are
found to be more anemic.
Conclusion The present study shows that lifestyle variables
play a significant role in causing anemia among nonpregnant
women in reproductive age groups.

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    ABSTRACT: Maternal health has ever been a serious matter of concern worldwide. In developing countries like India, maternal health care services are not sufficient as per requirement, which ultimately leads to maternal deaths triggering a challenge to achieve improve maternal health (i.e. MDG 5). Therefore, utilization of maternal health care services like ante-natal care (ANC) in 'Empowered Action Group's states, which are known as EAG states of India, need special attention as these states comprise the majority of population in India and are very backward as per various socioeconomic and demographic indicators. The present study has tried to focus on the utilization of ante -natal care services by women of age group 15 to 49 years by their demographic and socioeconomic characteristics. Indian Human Development Survey (IHDS-2005) data has been used. Simple bivariate and multivariate analyses like binary logistic regression, significance test are used. Though, previous literatures have already shown that socio -economic factors are the important predictors of the utilization of ANC services, but the present study has found a huge variation in the utilization of ANC services in EAG states. Apart from the other background characteristics like women's age, residence, level of education, economic status etc., indicator like abortion experiencedby women have also immense influence on women's health as well as ante-natal care services received by them. Though education has significant positive impact on women's health and utilization of ANC services, still the scenario is not same in all EAG states. Percentage of women, who have received ANC, has shown great discrepancy after controlling the variable like education and other socio-economic and demographic variables. Social equity with respect to the distribution of facilities is the utmost important prerequisite in these states. To reduce the gap between the ante-natal care service providers and the service receivers, appropriate policy, public private collaboration and their strategic implementation are required.
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    ABSTRACT: Background. India is the highest contributor to child anemia. About 89 million children in India are anemic. The study determines the factors that contributed to child anemia and examines the role of the existing programs in reducing the prevalence of child anemia particularly in the EAG states. Methods. The data from the latest round of the National Family Health Survey (NFHS-3) is used. Simple bivariate and multinomial logistics regression analyses are used. Results. About 70% children are anemic in all the EAG states. The prevalence of severe anemia is the highest (6.7%) in Rajasthan followed by Uttar Pradesh (3.6%) and Madhya Pradesh (3.4%). Children aged 12 to 17 months are significantly seven times (RR = 7.99, P < 0.001) more likely to be severely anemic compared to children of 36 to 59 months. Children of severely anemic mothers are also found to be more severely anemic (RR = 15.97, P < 0.001) than the children of not anemic mothers. Conclusions. The study reveals that the existing government program fails to control anemia among preschool children in the backward states of India. Therefore, there is an urgent need for monitoring of program in regular interval, particularly for EAG states to reduce the prevalence of anemia among preschool children.
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