HITHERTO UNRECORDED MACROFUNGI FROM INDIA
ABSTRACT Kashmir forests harbour rich macrofungal diversity and merely 250 macrofungi have been reported from the Himalayan state of Jammu & Kashmir. During a recent survey for mycorrhiza, four hitherto unreported macrofungi viz. Aleuria aurantia (Pers.), Mitrophora semilibera (DC) Lév., Russula delica (Fr.) and Russula paludosa (Britzelm.) were collected from conifer-dominated forests of Kashmir. Of these Russula delica and Russula paludosa are new records from India whereas Aleuria aurantia (Pers.) and Mitrophora semilibera (DC) Lév. are new reports from J&K State.
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ABSTRACT: 2011) Seasonal production of epigeal fungal sporocarps in mixed and pure fir (Abies pindrow) stands in Kashmir forests. Journal of Agricultural Technology 7(5): 1375-1387. The studies were conducted to assess the seasonal variation in epigeal fruiting pattern through spring, summer and autumn, and to establish the base-line inventory of macrofungi of Kashmir forests in Western Himalaya. Two forests viz., Gulmarg and Pahalgam of Kashmir, consisting of 9 sites from each forest having either pure or mixed fir (Abies pindrow) stand, were surveyed for epigeal macrofungi in 2008 and 2009. A total of 1,439 sporocarps belonging to 66 macrofungal species (43 genera) were collected during the survey from the selected sites, out of which 36 species were mycorrhizal in nature. Much species diversity was noticed in Russula (13%), Amanita (11%), Suillus (9%) and Hebeloma (7%). The sporocarp production was 14% higher in year 2008 than 2009. Twenty five macrofungal species were observed in both the years whereas 25 species occurred exclusively in 2008 and only 16 macrofungal species exclusively in 2009. Of the 25 species noticed in both the years 60% were mycorrhizal in nature. Twenty seven macrofungal species were noticed in both the forests and 21 species appeared in more than one season. Hitherto unreported macrofungi, Clitocybe eccentrica Peck. and Leucoagaricus nympharum (Kalchbr.) Bon. were new records from India and Panaeolus campanulatus (Bull. ex. Fr.) a new report from Jammu & Kashmir State. The epigeal macrofungal dry biomass yield of 1,800 g ha -1 year -1 was observed from both the forests surveyed and varied from season to season with highest aggregate yield recorded in autumn (921.5 g ha -1) and less in summer (309.5 g ha -1). Gulmarg forest exhibited much diversity in macrofungal biomass than Pahalgam forest. In Gulmarg and Pahalgam forests, an average dry sporocarp biomass of 2,132.5 and 1,467.0 g ha -1 , respectively, was recorded from both mixed and pure stands in three seasons with maximum biomass in autumn and minimum in summer. The sporocarp biomass production was more in pure fir forest stands (1,903 g ha -1) than mixed stands (1,697 g ha -1). The study revealed prevalence of great macrofungal diversity and specie richness in Western Himalayan forests and their proper exploration may be of immense future use.Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology 01/2011; 7(7):1375-1387. · 0.69 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: A study was conducted in Jeypore Reserve Forest located in Assam, India to investigate the diversity of macrofungi associated with different tree species. The diversity of broad leaves trees and high humidity during monsoon period favours ideal growth of diverse group of macrofungal fruiting bodies. Thirty macrofungal species representing 26 genera belonging to 17 families were collected from six different sites in the study area. Out of these maximum six genera assignable to family Polyporaceae, five genera to Russulaceae, three genera to Agaricaceae, two genera to Ganodermataceae and Cantharellaceae each and rest of the families were represented by single genus only. The ecological preference of the species reveled that maximum (17) species were saprophyte, living on dead substrates or decaying wood debris, ten species were found associated with roots of higher trees, while three species were found parasitic. Overall 20 species were found edible including some species having medicinal utilization. The present study revealed that maximum frequency of occurrence was exhibited by Trametes versicolor and Schizophyllum commune (83.33%), followed by Microporus xanthopus , Pycnoporus sanguineus (66.67%) and Coprinus disseminates (50%). The rest of the species exhibited the frequency distribution ranging between 16.67-33.33%. The maximum density was recorded for Schizophyllum commune (126.67%) followed by Trametes versicolor (120%) and Xylaria polymorpha (93.33%) . The density of rest of the species were ranged between 3.33- 6.67%. The key objective of the present study was to generate a database on macrofungal diversity of Jeypore Reserve Forest along with their ecological preferences and utilization, which is not earlier documented.Biodiversitas. 01/2013; 14(2):73-78.
Applied Biological Research (2009) 11(2): 59-62
HITHERTO UNRECORDED MACROFUNGI FROM INDIA
Gh. Hassan Dar*, Muzaffar A. Beig and Nadeem A. Ganai
Division of Plant Pathology, S.K. University of Agricultural Sciences and Technology of Kashmir
Shalimar Campus Srinagar 191 121 (J&K)
(Received 19 January, 2009; accepted 28 October, 2009)
Kashmir forests harbour rich macrofungal diversity and merely 250
macrofungi have been reported from the Himalayan state of Jammu &
Kashmir. During a recent survey for mycorrhiza, four hitherto unreported
macrofungi viz. Aleuria aurantia (Pers.), Mitrophora semilibera (DC) Lév.,
Russula delica (Fr.) and Russula paludosa (Britzelm.) were collected from
conifer-dominated forests of Kashmir. Of these Russula delica and Russula
paludosa are new records from India whereas Aleuria aurantia (Pers.) and
Mitrophora semilibera (DC) Lév. are new reports from J&K State.
Key words: Aleuria aurantia, India, Jammu and Kashmir, macrofungi,
Mitrophora semilibera, Russula delica, Russula paludosa
The Himalayan State of Jammu & Kashmir owing to wide agro-climatic variations, diverse
physiography and undulating topography has variable forest types with rich plant stand and
luxuriant to scanty growth depending upon the nature and amount of humus accumulation.
Merely 250 macrofungal species have been reported from Jammu & Kashmir (Walting and
Abraham 1992; Gardezi and Najma 2005; Dar et al., 2007; Beig et al., 2008a,b; Dar et al.,
2009 a,b,c). Out of these about 165 species have been reported from the Indian part of the State
and rest from Pakistan administered Kashmir. Many species amongst these are new records
from the Indian subcontinent and the species like Calvatia verrucosia, Boletus inequalaterus,
B. ratonjoghensis, Geastrum heptaplex, Lycoperdon echinulaton, L. pedicellaton, L.
sphaericon, Russula baghensa, Russula hullera and Russula kashmira are de novo records
(Gardezi and Najma 2003, Gardezi 2003, 2005). The J&K forests have been surveyed
superficially for macrofungi, including mushrooms; and many macrofungi have remained yet
unreported from the area. The present communication describes some newly reported
macrofungi from J&K State.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
Forest areas of Jehlum Valley Division (Gulmarg and Baramulla) and Zabarvan hills (Cheshmashahi
area) were surveyed for mycorrhiza during March, 2008 to April, 2009. Standard methods were
followed for the collection, preservation and macro- and micro-scopic studies of macrofungi (Kumar et
al., 1990; Atri et al., 2003). Identification was made on the basis of critical macro- and micro-scopic
observations of the specimens and perusal of relevant literature (Pacioni, 1985) and Mycokey
(http://www.mycokey.com). Photographs were taken using digital Nikon camera. The sporocarps and
sporophores of macrofungi were maintained in 4% formaldehyde solution in the laboratory and
preserved in the herbarium of Division of Plant Pathology, SKUAST-K, Srinagar (J&K).
G.H. Dar et al. 60
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
During present survey several macrofungi were collected from lower forest range to alpine zone
of Kashmir. Four macrofungi were observed to be new records from the Jammu & Kashmir
State (Fig. 1 & 2). Of these two species belonging to Russulales (Fig. 1) were hitherto
unreported from India so far (Bilgrammi et al., 1982, 1991; Sorbhay et al., 1996; Jammuldin et
al., 2004). These macrofungi are described below:
1. Russula delica Fr. Epicr. syst. mycol. (Upsaliae): 350 (1838) [1836-1838] (Russulaceae)
The fungus commonly known as ‘milk-white brittlegill’ was observed in autumn season in fir
(Abies pindrow)-dominated conifer forest areas of Gulmarg and Tangmarg forests of Kashmir.
The cap was 5.0-14.0 cm across, convex, cup or funnel-shaped, whitish, often tinged yellow
brownish, dry, thick-fleshed and margin strongly in-rolled. Young carpophores were convex
and flattened whereas mature ones were often funnel-shaped. The stipe was 2.0-6.0 x 2.0-4.0
cm, white and hard. The flesh was white. The gills were decurrent, white, often tinged bluish
towards the stem, mostly forked or with cross-connections and interspersed with numerous
short gills. The spores were creamy white, ovoid with warts and measured 8.0-11.0 x 7.0-9.0
µm in size.
2. Russula paludosa Britzelm. (1891) Saccardo's Syll. fung. XI: 30; XXI: 91; XII: 1021; XX:
The fungus was noticed during autumn season in conifer-dominated forests under the canopy of
pine trees (Pinus walichiana) in Tangmarg forests of Kashmir. The cap was 4.0-10.0 cm across,
initially convex and later flattened with central depression, red to blood-red, fleshy, firm,
slightly sticky when moist, half to three-quarters peeling. The stipe was 4.0-9.0 x 1.0-2.2 cm,
white, cylindrical, narrow, club-shaped or swollen in the middle. The flesh was white. The gills
were adnexed, rather pale creamy or whitish, connected by veins at their bases. The spores were
white or cream, ovoid/ elliptic with warts and measured 8.0-10.5 x 7.0–8.0 µm in size.
3. Aleuria aurantia (Pers.) Fuckel, Jb. nassau. Ver. Naturk. 23-24: 325 (1870) 1869-70]
The fungus Aleuria aurantia, often called orange peel fungus, was found on moist humus soil,
growing in clusters in deciduous forests of Zabarvan hills of Kashmir valley in spring season.
The carpophores are cup-shaped, often became flattened or appeared irregularly shaped as a
result of clustered growth habit, reached width of upto 10 cm in dia. The hymenial surface was
bright orange-red above but finely pubescent and fuzzy-whitish underside (at least when
young). The flesh was thin, white and fragile. The spores were white, elliptical, warted and
reticulate when mature; usually with two oil droplets and a prominent apiculus at each end and
measured 16.0-22.0 x 9.0-11.0 µm in size.
4. Mitrophora semilibera (DC) Lév., Annls Sci. Nat., Bot., sér. 35: 249 (1846)
The fungus was found in spring season in damp woodlands dominated by broad leaved trees of
Zabarvan forests of Kashmir valley. The cap was 1.5-4.0 cm high, conical with more or less
vertical membranous ridges, dark olive-brown, attached to the stem about half way creating a
skirt like appearance. The stem was 4.0-8.0 x 1.5-2.5 cm, whitish cream and scurfy in colour,
Hitherto unrecorded macrofungi from India
cylindrical and hollow. The spores were cream coloured, smooth, elliptical, without oil droplets
and measured 22.0-28.0 x 14.0-18.0 µm in size.
Fig. 1: Unrecorded macrofungi from India: a = Russula delica, b = Russula paludosa (The inset figures show
the asci and spores of the respective fungus)
Fig. 2: Unrecorded macrofungi from Jammu and Kashmir State: a = Aleuria aurantia b = Mitrophora
semilibera (The inset figures show the asci and spores of the respective fungus)
The study emphasizes on the need for thorough exploration of Kashmir forests for
macrofungi emanating in different seasons, at variable altitudes and under varied environments.
The biodiversity of macrofungi within a natural community or a habitat is considered important
for long term stability of an ecosystem. It is essential to develop on-line data-base for the
description of ectomycorrhizae.
Acknowledgment: The authors are highly grateful to the Department of Science and
Technology, Government of India, New Delhi, India for providing financial grant to undertake
the present investigations.
G.H. Dar et al. 62
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