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Manual for the Depression Anxiety, stress scales

Sydney
Publisher: Psychology Foundation
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    ABSTRACT: Background & Objective: Dentistry is a stressful job and dental students are exposed to educational and environmental stresses. The aim of this study was to determine the stress level in dental students. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on students of School of Dentistry, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Iran. Data were collected by Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scales (DASS-21) standard questionnaire and analyzed by linear regression and t-test. Results: 32.6% of students had moderate and 4.3% had severe stress. There was no significant differences between sex, academic year, mean of scores, and stress level. Married students had more stress (P = 0.037). Students staying with their parents had low stress level (P = 0.047). In 66% of students, the university issues were stressor. Conclusion: Based on the result of this study, stress level among dental students is fairly high; greater attention to this issue is recommended. Keywords: Stress, Dental students, Kerman, Iran,
    Strides Dev Med Educ. 01/2014; 10(4):467-472.
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    ABSTRACT: Comorbidity between anxiety and cannabis use is common yet the nature of the association between these conditions is not clear. Four theories were assessed, and a fifth hypothesis tested to determine if the misattribution of stress symptomology plays a role in the association between state-anxiety and cannabis. Three-hundred-sixteen participants ranging in age from 18 to 71 years completed a short online questionnaire asking about their history of cannabis use and symptoms of stress and anxiety. Past and current cannabis users reported higher incidence of lifetime anxiety than participants who had never used cannabis; however, these groups did not differ in state-anxiety, stress, or age of onset of anxiety. State-anxiety and stress were not associated with frequency of cannabis use, but reported use to self-medicate for anxiety was positively associated with all three. Path analyses indicated two different associations between anxiety and cannabis use, pre-existing and high state-anxiety was associated with (i) higher average levels of intoxication and, in turn, acute anxiety responses to cannabis use; (ii) frequency of cannabis use via the mediating effects of stress and self-medication. None of the theories was fully supported by the findings. However, as cannabis users reporting self-medication for anxiety were found to be self-medicating stress symptomology, there was some support for the stress-misattribution hypothesis. With reported self-medication for anxiety being the strongest predictor of frequency of use, it is suggested that researchers, clinicians, and cannabis users pay greater attention to the overlap between stress and anxiety symptomology and the possible misinterpretation of these related but distinct conditions.
    Frontiers in Psychiatry 11/2014; 5:168.
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of the FRIENDS for Life program on students’ and teachers’ emotional outcomes in a school serving a high-poverty population. The focus of the intervention was to train/coach teachers with strategies to develop social and emotional skills for students. A single group, pre/post-test design was used to conduct a preliminary investigation of the intervention to improve participants’ social and emotional outcomes. At the end of the intervention, students who were at risk showed significant decrease in their anxiety levels and teacher’s demonstrated significant improvements on their emotional resilience.
    Australian Journal of Teacher Education 01/2015; in press.